Suppose a server holds a long text string and a receiver holds a short pattern string. Secure pattern matching allows the receiver to learn the locations in the long text where the pattern appears, while leaking nothing else to either party besides the length of their inputs. In this work we consider secure wildcard pattern matching WPM, where the receiver’s pattern is allowed to contain wildcards that match to any character.
We present SWiM, a simple and fast protocol for WPM that is heavily based on oblivious transfer (OT) extension. As such, the protocol requires only a small constant number of public-key operations and otherwise uses only very fast symmetric-key primitives. SWiM is secure against semi-honest adversaries. We implemented a prototype of our protocol to demonstrate its practicality. We can perform WPM on a DNA text (4-character alphabet) of length 10^5
and pattern of length 10^3 in just over 2 seconds, which is over two orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art scheme of Baron et al. (SCN 2012).
Secure multiparty computation (MPC) often relies on sources of correlated randomness for better efficiency and simplicity. This is particularly useful for MPC with no honest majority, where input-independent correlated randomness enables a lightweight “non-cryptographic” online phase once the inputs are known. However, since the amount of correlated randomness typically scales with the circuit size of the function being computed, securely generating correlated randomness forms an efficiency bottleneck, involving a large amount of communication and storage. A natural tool for addressing the above limitations is a pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG). A PCG allows two or more parties to securely generate long sources of useful correlated randomness via a local expansion of correlated short seeds and no interaction. PCGs enable MPC with silent preprocessing, where a small amount of interaction used for securely sampling the seeds is followed by silent local generation of correlated pseudorandomness. A concretely efficient PCG for Vector-OLE correlations was recently obtained by Boyle et al. (CCS 2018) based on variants of the learning parity with noise (LPN) assumption over large fields. In this work, we initiate a systematic study of PCGs and present concretely efficient constructions for several types of useful MPC correlations. We obtain the following main contributions:
– PCG foundations. We give a general security definition for PCGs. Our definition suffices for any MPC protocol satisfying a stronger security requirement that is met by existing protocols. We prove that a stronger security requirement is indeed necessary, and justify our PCG definition by ruling out a stronger and more natural definition.
– Silent OT extension. We present the first concretely efficient PCG for oblivious transfer correlations. Its security is based on a variant of the binary LPN assumption and any correlation-robust hash function. We expect it to provide a faster alternative to the IKNP OT extension protocol (Crypto ’03) when communication is the bottleneck. We present several applications, including protocols for non-interactive zero-knowledge with bounded-reusable preprocessing from binary LPN, and concretely efficient related-key oblivious pseudorandom functions.
– PCGs for simple 2-party correlations. We obtain PCGs for several other types of useful 2-party correlations, including (authenticated) one-time truth-tables and Beaver triples. While the latter PCGs are slower than our PCG for OT, they are still practically feasible. These PCGs are based on a host of assumptions and techniques, including specialized homomorphic secret sharing schemes and pseudorandom generators tailored to their structure.
– Multiparty correlations. We obtain PCGs for multiparty correlations that can be used to make the circuit-dependent communication of MPC protocols scale linearly (instead of quadratically) with the number of parties.
Oblivious Transfer has played a crucial role in the design of secure multi party computation. Nevertheless, there are not many practical solutions that achieve simulation based security and at the same time instantiable based on different assumptions.
In this work, we show how to construct highly efficient oblivious transfer in the random oracle model that achieves simulation based security under a wide range of assumptions, among them DDH, CDH, LWE and coding based assumptions. We revise classical security notions and propose a new security notion that we call endemic security. We construct an endemically secure oblivious transfer based on DDH that takes only a single communication round which allows significant performance gains over previously known solutions. We also instantiate our oblivious transfer with the Crystals.Kyber key agreement. Our implementation shows that both instantiations can be computed in under one millisecond.
Further, our new security notion also allows us to revisit, correct and improve existing oblivious transfer extension techniques. We provide an implementation of an oblivious transfer extension protocol in the ideal cipher model that is actively secure, processing up to 23 million OTs per second and up to 10 times faster than previous secure implementations. We also show that our framework can compute endemically secure OT extension and the base OTs in just two rounds.
We consider the problem of securely generating useful instances of two-party correlations, such as many independent copies of a random oblivious transfer (OT) correlation, using a small amount of communication. This problem is motivated by the goal of secure computation with silent preprocessing, where a low-communication input-independent setup, followed by local (“silent”) computation, enables a lightweight “non-cryptographic” online phase once the inputs are known.
Recent works of Boyle et al. (CCS 2018, Crypto 2019) achieve this goal with good concrete efficiency for useful kinds of two-party correlations, including OT correlations, under different variants of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption, and using a small number of “base” oblivious transfers. The protocols of Boyle et al. have several limitations. First, they require a large number of communication rounds. Second, they are only secure against semi-honest parties. Finally, their concrete efficiency estimates are not backed by an actual implementation. In this work we address these limitations, making three main contributions:
Eliminating interaction. Under the same assumption, we obtain the first concretely efficient 2-round protocols for generating useful correlations, including OT correlations, in the semi-honest security model. This implies the first efficient 2-round OT extension protocol of any kind and, more generally, protocols for non-interactive secure computation (NISC) that are concretely efficient and have the silent preprocessing feature.
Malicious security. We provide security against malicious parties (in the random oracle model) without additional interaction and with only a modest concrete overhead; prior to our work, no similar protocols were known with any number of rounds.
Implementation. Finally, we implemented, optimized, and benchmarked our 2-round OT extension protocol, demonstrating that it offers a more attractive alternative to the OT extension protocol of Ishai et al. (Crypto 2003) in many realistic settings.
Oblivious Transfer (OT) is one of the most fundamental cryptographic primitives with wide-spread application in general secure multi-party computation (MPC) as well as in a number of tailored and special-purpose problems of interest such as private set intersection (PSI), private information retrieval (PIR), contract signing to name a few. Often the instantiations of OT require prohibitive communication and computation complexity. OT extension protocols are introduced to compute a very large number of OTs referred as extended OTs at the cost of a small number of OTs referred as seed OTs.
We present a fast OT extension protocol for small secrets in active setting. Our protocol when used to produce 1-out-of-n OTs outperforms all the known actively secure OT extensions. Our protocol is built on the semi-honest secure extension protocol of Kolesnikov and Kumaresan of CRYPTO’13 (referred as KK13 protocol henceforth) which is the best known OT extension for short secrets. At the heart of our protocol lies an efficient consistency checking mechanism that relies on the linearity of Walsh-Hadamard (WH) codes. Asymptotically, our protocol adds a communication overhead of O(μlogκ) bits over KK13 protocol irrespective of the number of extended OTs, where κ and μ refer to computational and statistical security parameter respectively. Concretely, our protocol when used to generate a large enough number of OTs adds only 0.011−0.028% communication overhead and 4−6% runtime overhead both in LAN and WAN over KK13 extension. The runtime overheads drop below 2% when in addition the number of inputs of the sender in the extended OTs is large enough.