Papers tagged as MPC
  1. Efficient Circuit-based PSI via Cuckoo Hashing 2018 Eurocrypt MPC PSI
    Benny Pinkas, Thomas Schneider, Christian Weinert, and Udi Wieder

    While there has been a lot of progress in designing efficient custom protocols for computing Private Set Intersection (PSI), there has been less research on using generic Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocols for this task. However, there are many variants of the set intersection functionality that are not addressed by the existing custom PSI solutions and are easy to compute with generic MPC protocols (e.g., comparing the cardinality of the intersection with a threshold or measuring ad conversion rates).

    Generic PSI protocols work over circuits that compute the intersection. For sets of size n, the best known circuit constructions conduct O(nlogn) or O(nlogn/loglogn) comparisons (Huang et al., NDSS’12 and Pinkas et al., USENIX Security’15). In this work, we propose new circuit-based protocols for computing variants of the intersection with an almost linear number of comparisons. Our constructions are based on new variants of Cuckoo hashing in two dimensions.

    We present an asymptotically efficient protocol as well as a protocol with better concrete efficiency. For the latter protocol, we determine the required sizes of tables and circuits experimentally, and show that the run-time is concretely better than that of existing constructions.

    The protocol can be extended to a larger number of parties. The proof technique for analyzing Cuckoo hashing in two dimensions is new and can be generalized to analyzing standard Cuckoo hashing as well as other new variants of it.

  2. New Primitives for Actively-Secure MPC over Rings with Applications to Private Machine Learning 2019 MachineLearning MPC Oakland
    Ivan Damgård, Daniel Escudero, Tore Frederiksen, Marcel Keller, Peter Scholl, and Nikolaj Volgushev

    At CRYPTO 2018 Cramer et al. presented SPDZ2k, a new secret-sharing based protocol for actively secure multi-party computation against a dishonest majority, that works over rings instead of fields. Their protocol uses slightly more communication than competitive schemes working over fields. However, their approach allows for arithmetic to be carried out using native 32 or 64-bit CPU operations rather than modulo a large prime. The authors thus conjectured that the increased communication would be more than made up for by the increased efficiency of implementations.

    In this work we answer their conjecture in the affirmative. We do so by implementing their scheme, and designing and implementing new efficient protocols for equality test, comparison, and truncation over rings. We further show that these operations find application in the machine learning domain, and indeed significantly outperform their field-based competitors. In particular, we implement and benchmark oblivious algorithms for decision tree and support vector machine (SVM) evaluation.

  3. Low Cost Constant Round MPCCombining BMR and Oblivious Transfer 2017 Asiacrypt GarbledCircuits MPC SecretSharing
    Carmit Hazay, Peter Scholl, and Eduardo Soria-Vazquez

    In this work, we present two new universally composable, actively secure, constant round multi-party protocols for generating BMR garbled circuits with free-XOR and reduced costs.

    (1) Our first protocol takes a generic approach using any secret-sharing based MPC protocol for binary circuits, and a correlated oblivious transfer functionality.

    (2) Our specialized protocol uses secret-sharing based MPC with information-theoretic MACs. This approach is less general, but requires no additional correlated OTs to compute the garbled circuit.

    In both approaches, the underlying secret-sharing based protocol is only used for one secure F2

    multiplication per AND gate. An interesting consequence of this is that, with current techniques, constant round MPC for binary circuits is not much more expensive than practical, non-constant round protocols.

    We demonstrate the practicality of our second protocol with an implementation, and perform experiments with up to 9
    parties securely computing the AES and SHA-256 circuits. Our running times improve upon the best possible performance with previous BMR-based protocols by 60 times.

  4. Hashing Garbled Circuits for Free 2017 Eurocrypt GarbledCircuits Hashing MPC
    Xiong Fan, Chaya Ganesh, and Vladimir Kolesnikov

    We introduce {\em Free Hash}, a new approach to generating Garbled Circuit (GC) hash at no extra cost during GC generation. This is in contrast with state-of-the-art approaches, which hash GCs at computational cost of up to 6× of GC generation. GC hashing is at the core of the cut-and-choose technique of GC-based secure function evaluation (SFE).

    Our main idea is to intertwine hash generation/verification with GC generation and evaluation. While we {\em allow} an adversary to generate a GC \GCˆ whose hash collides with an honestly generated \GC, such a \GCˆ w.h.p. will fail evaluation and cheating will be discovered. Our GC hash is simply a (slightly modified) XOR of all the gate table rows of GC. It is compatible with Free XOR and half-gates garbling, and can be made to work with many cut-and-choose SFE protocols.

    With today’s network speeds being not far behind hardware-assisted fixed-key garbling throughput, eliminating the GC hashing cost will significantly improve SFE performance. Our estimates show substantial cost reduction in typical settings, and up to factor 6 in specialized applications relying on GC hashes.

    We implemented GC hashing algorithm and report on its performance.

  5. High-Throughput Secure Three-Party Computation for Malicious Adversaries and an Honest Majority 2017 Eurocrypt MPC
    Jun Furukawa, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, and Or Weinstein

    In this paper, we describe a new protocol for secure three-party computation of any functionality, with an honest majority and a \textit{malicious} adversary. Our protocol has both an information-theoretic and computational variant, and is distinguished by extremely low communication complexity and very simple computation. We start from the recent semi-honest protocol of Araki et al. (ACM CCS 2016) in which the parties communicate only a single bit per AND gate, and modify it to be secure in the presence of malicious adversaries. Our protocol follows the paradigm of first constructing Beaver multiplication triples and then using them to verify that circuit gates are correctly computed. As in previous work (e.g., the so-called TinyOT and SPDZ protocols), we rely on the cut-and-choose paradigm to verify that triples are correctly constructed. We are able to utilize the fact that at most one of three parties is corrupted in order to construct an extremely simple and efficient method of constructing such triples. We also present an improved combinatorial analysis for this cut-and-choose which can be used to achieve improvements in other protocols using this approach.

  6. S3ORAM: A Computation-Efficient and Constant Client Bandwidth Blowup ORAM with Shamir Secret Sharing 2017 CCS Implementation MPC ORAM SecretSharing
    Thang Hoang, Ceyhun D. Ozkaptan, Attila A. Yavuz, Jorge Guajardo, and Tam Nguyen

    Oblivious Random Access Machine (ORAM) enables a client to access her data without leaking her access patterns. Existing client-efficient ORAMs either achieve O(log N) client-server communication blowup without heavy computation, or O(1) blowup but with expensive homomorphic encryptions. It has been shown that O(log N) bandwidth blowup might not be practical for certain applications, while schemes with O(1) communication blowup incur even more delay due to costly homomorphic operations.

    In this paper, we propose a new distributed ORAM scheme referred to as Shamir Secret Sharing ORAM (S3ORAM), which achieves O(1) client-server bandwidth blowup and O(1) blocks of client storage without relying on costly partial homomorphic encryptions. S3ORAM harnesses Shamir Secret Sharing, tree-based ORAM structure and a secure multi-party multiplication protocol to eliminate costly homomorphic operations and, therefore, achieves O(1) client-server bandwidth blowup with a high computational efficiency. We conducted comprehensive experiments to assess the performance of S3ORAM and its counterparts on actual cloud environments, and showed that S3ORAM achieves three orders of magnitude lower end-to-end delay compared to alternatives with O(1) client communication blowup (Onion-ORAM), while it is one order of magnitude faster than Path-ORAM for a network with a moderate bandwidth quality. We have released the implementation of S3ORAM for further improvement and adaptation.

  7. Efficient, Constant-Round and Actively Secure MPC: Beyond the Three-Party Case 2017 CCS Implementation MPC
    Nishanth Chandran, Juan A. Garay, Payman Mohassel, and Satyanarayana Vusirikala

    While the feasibility of constant-round and actively secure MPC has been known for over two decades, the last few years have witnessed a flurry of designs and implementations that make its deployment a palpable reality. To our knowledge, however, existing concretely efficient MPC constructions are only for up to three parties.

    In this paper we design and implement a new actively secure 5PC protocol tolerating two corruptions that requires 8 rounds of interaction, only uses fast symmetric-key operations, and incurs 60% less communication than the passively secure state-of-the-art solution from the work of Ben-Efraim, Lindell, and Omri [CCS 2016]. For example, securely evaluating the AES circuit when the parties are in different regions of the U.S. and Europe only takes 1.8s which is 2.6x faster than the passively secure 5PC in the same environment.

    Instrumental for our efficiency gains (less interaction, only symmetric key primitives) is a new 4-party primitive we call Attested OT, which in addition to Sender and Receiver involves two additional “assistant parties” who will attest to the respective inputs of both parties, and which might be of broader applicability in practically relevant MPC scenarios. Finally, we also show how to generalize our construction to n parties with similar efficiency properties where the corruption threshold is t ≈ √n, and propose a combinatorial problem which, if solved optimally, can yield even better corruption thresholds for the same cost.

  8. A Framework for Constructing Fast MPC over Arithmetic Circuits with Malicious Adversaries and an Honest Majority 2017 CCS MPC
    Yehuda Lindell and Ariel Nof

    Protocols for secure multiparty computation enable a set of parties to compute a function of their inputs without revealing anything but the output. The security properties of the protocol must be preserved in the presence of adversarial behavior. The two classic adversary models considered are semi-honest (where the adversary follows the protocol specification but tries to learn more than allowed by examining the protocol transcript) and malicious (where the adversary may follow any arbitrary attack strategy). Protocols for semi-honest adversaries are often far more efficient, but in many cases the security guarantees are not strong enough.

    In this paper, we present a new efficient method for “compiling” a large class of protocols that are secure in the presence of semi-honest adversaries into protocols that are secure in the presence of malicious adversaries. Our method assumes an honest majority (i.e., that t<n/2 where t is the number of corrupted parties and n is the number of parties overall), and is applicable to many semi-honest protocols based on secret-sharing. In order to achieve high efficiency, our protocol is secure with abort and does not achieve fairness, meaning that the adversary may receive output while the honest parties do not.

    We present a number of instantiations of our compiler, and obtain protocol variants that are very efficient for both a small and large number of parties. We implemented our protocol variants and ran extensive experiments to compare them with each other. Our results show that secure computation with an honest majority can be practical, even with security in the presence of malicious adversaries. For example, we securely compute a large arithmetic circuit of depth 20 with 1,000,000 multiplication gates, in approximately 0.5 seconds with three parties, and approximately 29 seconds with 50 parties, and just under 1 minute with 90 parties.

  9. Pool: Scalable On-Demand Secure Computation Service against Malicious Adversaries 2017 CCS Implementation MPC
    Ruiyu Zhu, Yan Huang, and Darion Cassel

    This paper considers the problem of running a long-term on-demand service for executing actively-secure computations. We examined state-of-the-art tools and implementations for actively-secure computation and identified a set of key features indispensable to offer meaningful service like this. Since no satisfactory tools exist for the purpose, we developed Pool, a new tool for building and executing actively-secure computation protocols at extreme scales with nearly zero offline delay. With Pool, we are able to obliviously execute, for the first time, reactive computations like ORAM in the malicious threat model. Many technical benefits of Pool can be attributed to the concept of pool-based cut-and-choose. We show with experiments that this idea has significantly improved the scalability and usability of JIMU, a state-of-the-art LEGO protocol.

  10. Global-Scale Secure Multiparty Computation 2017 CCS GarbledCircuits Implementation MPC
    Xiao Wang, Samuel Ranellucci, and Jonathan Katz

    We propose a new, constant-round protocol for multi-party computation of boolean circuits that is secure against an arbitrary number of malicious corruptions. At a high level, we extend and generalize recent work of Wang et al. in the two-party setting. Namely, we design an efficient preprocessing phase that allows the parties to generate authenticated information; we then show how to use this information to distributively construct a single “authenticated” garbled circuit that is evaluated by one party.

    Our resulting protocol improves upon the state-of-the-art both asymptotically and concretely. We validate these claims via several experiments demonstrating both the efficiency and scalability of our protocol:

    Efficiency: For three-party computation over a LAN, our protocol requires only 95 ms to evaluate AES. This is roughly a 700X improvement over the best prior work, and only 2.5X slower than the best known result in the two-party setting. In general, for n-party computation our protocol improves upon prior work (which was never implemented) by a factor of more than 230n, e.g., an improvement of 3 orders of magnitude for 5-party computation.

    Scalability: We successfully executed our protocol with a large number of parties located all over the world, computing (for example) AES with 128 parties across 5 continents in under 3 minutes. Our work represents the largest-scale demonstration of secure computation to date.

  11. Fast Secure Computation for Small Population over the Internet 2018 CCS MPC
    Megha Byali, Arun Joseph, Arpita Patra and Divya Ravi

    Secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) with small number of parties is an interesting area of research, primarily due to its ability to model most real-life MPC applications and the simplicity and efficiency of the resulting protocols. In this work, we present efficient, constant-round 3-party (3PC) and 4-party (4PC) protocols in the honest-majority setting that achieve strong security notions of fairness (corrupted parties receive their output only if all honest parties receive output) and guaranteed output delivery (corrupted parties cannot prevent honest parties from receiving their output). Being constant-round, our constructions are suitable for Internet-like high-latency networks and are built from garbled circuits (GC).

    Assuming the minimal model of pairwise-private channels, we present two protocols that involve computation and communication of a single GC– (a) a 4-round 3PC with fairness, (b) a 5-round 4PC with guaranteed output delivery. Empirically, our protocols are on par with the best known 3PC protocol of Mohassel et al. [CCS 2015] that only achieves security with selective abort, in terms of the computation time, LAN runtime, WAN runtime and communication cost. In fact, our 4PC outperforms the 3PC of Mohassel et al. significantly in terms of per-party computation and communication cost. With an extra GC, we improve the round complexity of our 4PC to four rounds. The only 4PC in our setting, given by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO 2015], involves 12 GCs.

    Assuming an additional broadcast channel, we present a 5-round 3PC with guaranteed output delivery that involves computation and communication of a single GC. A broadcast channel is inevitable in this setting for achieving guaranteed output delivery, owing to an impossibility result in the literature. The overall broadcast communication of our protocol is nominal and most importantly, is independent of the circuit size. This protocol too induces a nominal overhead compared to the protocol of Mohassel et al.

  12. Two-Thirds Honest-Majority MPC for Malicious Adversaries at Almost the Cost of Semi-Honest 2019 CCS MPC
    Jun Furukawa and Yehuda Lindell

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) enables a set of parties to securely carry out a joint computation of their private inputs without revealing anything but the output. Protocols for semi-honest adversaries guarantee security as long as the corrupted parties run the specified protocol and ensure that nothing is leaked in the transcript. In contrast, protocols for malicious adversaries guarantee security in the presence of arbitrary adversaries who can run any attack strategy. Security for malicious adversaries is typically what is needed in practice (and is always preferred), but comes at a significant cost.

    In this paper, we present the first protocol for a two-thirds honest majority that achieves security in the presence of malicious adversaries at essentially the exact same cost as the best known protocols for semi-honest adversaries. Our construction is not a general transformation and thus it is possible that better semi-honest protocols will be constructed which do not support our transformation. Nevertheless, for the current state-of-the-art for many parties (based on Shamir sharing), our protocol invokes the best semi-honest multiplication protocol exactly once per multiplication gate (plus some additional local computation that is negligible to the overall cost). Concretely, the best version of our protocol requires each party to send on average of just 2$\frac{2}{3}$ elements per multiplication gate (when the number of multiplication gates is at least the number of parties). This is four times faster than the previous-best protocol of Barak et al. (ACM CCS 2018) for small fields, and twice as fast as the previous-best protocol of Chida et al. (CRYPTO 2018) for large fields.

  13. Stormy: Statistics in Tor by Measuring Securely 2019 CCS MPC Privacy Tor
    Ryan Wails, Aaron Johnson, Daniel Starin, Arkady Yerukhimovich, and S. Dov Gordon

    Tor is a tool for Internet privacy with millions of daily users. The Tor system benefits in many ways from information gathered about the operation of its network. Measurements guide operators in diagnosing problems, direct the efforts of developers, educate users about the level of privacy they obtain, and inform policymakers about Tor’s impact. However, data collection and reporting can degrade user privacy, contradicting Tor’s goals. Existing approaches to measuring Tor have limited capabilities and security weaknesses. We present Stormy, a general-purpose, privacy-preserving measurement system that overcomes these limitations. Stormy uses secure multiparty computation (MPC) to compute any function of the observations made by Tor relays, while keeping those observations secret. Stormy makes use of existing efficient MPC protocols that are secure in the malicious model, and in addition it includes a novel input-sharing protocol that is secure, efficient, and fault tolerant. The protocol is non-interactive, which is consistent with how relays currently submit measurements, and it allows the relays to go offline after input submission, even while ensuring that an honest relay will not have its input excluded or modified. The input-sharing protocol is compatible with MPC protocols computing on authenticated values and may be of independent interest. We show how Stormy can be deployed in two realistic models: (1) run primarily by a small set of dedicated authorities, or (2) run decentralized across the relays in the Tor network. Stormy scales efficiently to Tor’s thousands of relays, tolerates network churn, and provides security depending only on either Tor’s existing trust assumption that at least one authority is honest (in the first model) or the existing assumption that a large fraction of relay bandwidth is honest (in the second model). We demonstrate how to use the system to compute two broadly-applicable statistics: the median of relay inputs and the cardinality of set-union across relays. We implement Stormy and experimentally evaluate system performance. When Stormy is run among authorities we can perform 151 median computations or 533 set-union cardinalities over 7,000 relay inputs in a single day. When run among the relays themselves, Stormy can perform 36 median computations or 134 set union cardinalities per day. Thus, both deployments enable non-trivial analytics to be securely computed in the Tor network.

  14. Practical Fully Secure Three-Party Computation via Sublinear Distributed Zero-Knowledge Proofs 2019 CCS MPC ZK
    Elette Boyle, Niv Gilboa, Yuval Ishai and Ariel Nof

    Secure multiparty computation enables a set of parties to securely carry out a joint computation on their private inputs without revealing anything but the output. A particularly motivated setting is that of three parties with a single corruption (hereafter denoted 3PC). This 3PC setting is particularly appealing for two main reasons: (1) it admits more efficient MPC protocols than in other standard settings; (2) it allows in principle to achieve full security (and fairness).

    Highly efficient protocols exist within this setting with security against a semi-honest adversary; however, a significant gap remains between these and protocols with stronger security against a malicious adversary.

    In this paper, we narrow this gap within concretely efficient protocols. More explicitly, we have the following contributions:

    • Concretely Efficient Malicious 3PC. We present an optimized 3PC protocol for arithmetic circuits over rings with (amortized) communication of 1 ring element per multiplication gate per party, matching the best semi-honest protocols. The protocol applies also to Boolean circuits, significantly improving over previous protocols even for small circuits.

    Our protocol builds on recent techniques of Boneh et al.\ (Crypto 2019) for sublinear zero-knowledge proofs on distributed data, together with an efficient semi-honest protocol based on replicated secret sharing (Araki et al., CCS 2016).

    We present a concrete analysis of communication and computation costs, including several optimizations. For example, for 40-bit statistical security, and Boolean circuit with a million (nonlinear) gates, the overhead on top of the semi-honest protocol can involve less than 0.5KB of communication {\em for the entire circuit}, while the computational overhead is dominated by roughly 30 multiplications per gate in the field F247. In addition, we implemented and benchmarked the protocol for varied circuit sizes.

    • Full Security. We augment the 3PC protocol to further provide full security (with guaranteed output delivery) while maintaining amortized 1 ring element communication per party per multiplication gate, and with hardly any impact on concrete efficiency. This is contrasted with the best previous 3PC protocols from the literature, which allow a corrupt party to mount a denial-of-service attack without being detected.

  15. Make Some ROOM for the Zeros: Data Sparsity in Secure Distributed Machine Learning 2019 CCS MachineLearning MPC
    Phillipp Schoppmann, Adria Gascon, Mariana Raykova and Benny Pinkas

    Exploiting data sparsity is crucial for the scalability of many data analysis tasks. However, while there is an increasing interest in efficient secure computation protocols for distributed machine learning, data sparsity has so far not been considered in a principled way in that setting.

    We propose sparse data structures together with their corresponding secure computation protocols to address common data analysis tasks while utilizing data sparsity. In particular, we define a Read-Only Oblivious Map primitive (ROOM) for accessing elements in sparse structures, and present several instantiations of this primitive with different trade-offs. Then, using ROOM as a building block, we propose protocols for basic linear algebra operations such as Gather, Scatter, and multiple variants of sparse matrix multiplication. Our protocols are easily composable by using secret sharing. We leverage this, at the highest level of abstraction, to build secure end-to-end protocols for non-parametric models (k-nearest neighbors and naive Bayes classification) and parametric models (logistic regression) that enable secure analysis on high-dimensional datasets. The experimental evaluation of our protocol implementations demonstrates a manyfold improvement in the efficiency over state-of-the-art techniques across all applications.

    Our system is designed and built mirroring the modular architecture in scientific computing and machine learning frameworks, and inspired by the Sparse BLAS standard.

  16. LevioSA: Lightweight Secure Arithmetic Computation 2019 2PC CCS MPC
    Carmit Hazay, Yuval Ishai, Antonio Marcedone, and Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam

    We study the problem of secure two-party computation of arithmetic circuits in the presence of active (“malicious”) parties. This problem is motivated by privacy-preserving numerical computations, such as ones arising in the context of machine learning training and classification, as well as in threshold cryptographic schemes. In this work, we design, optimize, and implement anactively secure protocol for secure two-party arithmetic computation. A distinctive feature of our protocol is that it can make a fully modular black-box use of any passively secure implementation of oblivious linear function evaluation (OLE). OLE is a commonly used primitive for secure arithmetic computation, analogously to the role of oblivious transfer in secure computation for Boolean circuits. For typical (large but not-too-narrow) circuits, our protocol requires roughly 4 invocations of passively secure OLE per multiplication gate. This significantly improves over the recent TinyOLE protocol (Döttling et al., ACM CCS 2017), which requires 22 invocations of actively secure OLE in general, or 44 invocations of a specific code-based passively secure OLE. Our protocol follows the high level approach of the IPS compiler (Ishai et al., CRYPTO 2008, TCC 2009), optimizing it in several ways. In particular, we adapt optimization ideas that were used in the context of the practical zero-knowledge argument system Ligero (Ames et al., ACM CCS 2017) to the more general setting of secure computation, and explore the possibility of boosting efficiency by employing a “leaky” passively secure OLE protocol. The latter is motivated by recent (passively secure) lattice-based OLE implementations in which allowing such leakage enables better efficiency. We showcase the performance of our protocol by applying its implementation to several useful instances of secure arithmetic computation. On “wide” circuits, such as ones computing a fixed function on many different inputs, our protocol is 5x faster and transmits 4x less data than the state-of-the-art Overdrive (Keller et al., Eurocrypt 2018). Our benchmarks include a general passive-to-active OLE compiler, authenticated generation of “Beaver triples”, and a system for securely outsourcing neural network classification. The latter is the first actively secure implementation of its kind, strengthening the passive security provided by recent related works (Mohassel and Zhang, IEEE S&P 2017; Juvekar et al., USENIX 2018).

  17. HoneyBadgerMPC and AsynchroMix: Practical AsynchronousMPC and its Application to Anonymous Communication 2019 Blockchains CCS MPC
    Donghang Lu, Thomas Yurek, Samarth Kulshreshtha, Rahul Govind, Rahul Mahadev, Aniket Kate and Andrew Miller

    Multiparty computation as a service (MPSaaS) is a promising approach for building privacy-preserving communication systems.However, in this paper, we argue that existing MPC implementations are inadequate for this application as they do not address fairness, let alone robustness. Even a single malicious server can cause the protocol to abort while seeing the output for itself, which in the context of an anonymous communication service would create a vulnerability to censorship and deanonymization attacks. To remedy this we propose a new MPC implementation, HoneyBadgerMPC, that combines a robust online phase with an optimistic offline phase that is efficient enough to run continuously alongside the online phase. We use HoneyBadgerMPC to develop an application case study, called AsynchroMix, that provides an anonymous broadcast functionality. AsynchroMix features a novel MPC program that trades off between computation and communication, allowing for low-latency message mixing in varying settings. In a cloud-based distributed benchmark with 100 nodes, we demonstrate mixing a batch of 512 messages in around 20 seconds and up to 4096 messages in around two minutes.

  18. Fast Actively Secure Five-Party Computation with Security Beyond Abort 2019 CCS MPC
    Megha Byali, Carmit Hazay, Arpita Patra and Swati Singla

    Secure Multi-party Computation (MPC) with small population and honest majority has drawn focus specifically due to customization in techniques and resulting efficiency that the constructions can offer. In this work, we investigate a wide range of security notions in the five-party setting, tolerating two active corruptions. Being constant-round, our protocols are best suited for real-time, high latency networks such as the Internet.

    In a minimal setting of pairwise-private channels, we present efficient instantiations with unanimous abort (where either all honest parties obtain the output or none of them do) and fairness (where the adversary obtains its output only if all honest parties also receive it). With the presence of an additional broadcast channel (known to be necessary), we present a construction with guaranteed output delivery (where any adversarial behaviour cannot prevent the honest parties from receiving the output). The broadcast communication is minimal and independent of circuit size. In terms of performance (communication and run time), our protocols incur minimal overhead over the best known protocol of Chandran et al. (ACM CCS 2016) that achieves the least security notion of selective abort.

    Further, our protocols for fairness and unanimous abort can be extended to n-parties with at most n√ corruptions, similar to Chandran et al. Going beyond the most popular honest-majority setting of three parties with one corruption, our results demonstrate feasibility of attaining stronger security notions at an expense not too far from the least desired security of selective abort.

  19. Efficient Two-Round OT Extension and Silent Non-Interactive Secure Computation 2019 CCS MPC OT
    Elette Boyle, Geoffroy Couteau, Niv Gilboa, Yuval Ishai, Lisa Kohl, Peter Rindal and Peter Scholl

    We consider the problem of securely generating useful instances of two-party correlations, such as many independent copies of a random oblivious transfer (OT) correlation, using a small amount of communication. This problem is motivated by the goal of secure computation with silent preprocessing, where a low-communication input-independent setup, followed by local (“silent”) computation, enables a lightweight “non-cryptographic” online phase once the inputs are known.

    Recent works of Boyle et al. (CCS 2018, Crypto 2019) achieve this goal with good concrete efficiency for useful kinds of two-party correlations, including OT correlations, under different variants of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption, and using a small number of “base” oblivious transfers. The protocols of Boyle et al. have several limitations. First, they require a large number of communication rounds. Second, they are only secure against semi-honest parties. Finally, their concrete efficiency estimates are not backed by an actual implementation. In this work we address these limitations, making three main contributions:

    • Eliminating interaction. Under the same assumption, we obtain the first concretely efficient 2-round protocols for generating useful correlations, including OT correlations, in the semi-honest security model. This implies the first efficient 2-round OT extension protocol of any kind and, more generally, protocols for non-interactive secure computation (NISC) that are concretely efficient and have the silent preprocessing feature.

    • Malicious security. We provide security against malicious parties (in the random oracle model) without additional interaction and with only a modest concrete overhead; prior to our work, no similar protocols were known with any number of rounds.

    • Implementation. Finally, we implemented, optimized, and benchmarked our 2-round OT extension protocol, demonstrating that it offers a more attractive alternative to the OT extension protocol of Ishai et al. (Crypto 2003) in many realistic settings.

  20. Efficient Publicly Verifiable 2PC over a Blockchain with Applications to Financially-Secure Computations 2019 Blockchains CCS MPC
    Ruiyu Zhum, Changchang Ding, and Yan Huang

    We present a new efficient two-party secure computation protocol which allows the honest party to catch dishonest behavior (if any) with a publicly-verifiable, non-repudiable proof without sacrificing the honest party’s secret. Comparing to the best existing protocol of its kind, ours requires a substantially simpler judge algorithm and is able to process circuit evaluator’s input-wires two orders of magnitude faster. Further, we propose an automated, decentralized judge implemented as a blockchain smart-contract. As a killer application of combining our two-party PVC protocol with our decentralized judge, we proposed the concept of financially-secure computation, which can be useful in many practical scenarios where it suffices to consider rational adversaries. We experimentally evaluated our prototype implementation, demonstrated the 2PC protocol is highly efficient and the judge is very affordable to protect users against rational attackers.

  21. Efficient MPC via Program Analysis: A Framework for Efficient Optimal Mixing 2019 CCS MPC
    Muhammad Ishaq, Ana Milanova and Vassilis Zikas

    Multi-party computation (MPC) protocols have been extensively optimized in an effort to bring this technology to practice, which has already started bearing fruits. The choice of which MPC protocol to use depends on the computation we are trying to perform. Protocol mixing is an effective black-box —with respect to the MPC protocols—approach to optimize performance. Despite, however, considerable progress in the recent years existing works are heuristic and either give no guarantee or require an exponential (brute-force) search to find the optimal assignment, a problem which was conjectured to be NP hard.

    We provide a theoretically founded approach to optimal (MPC) protocol assignment, i.e., optimal mixing, and prove that under mild and natural assumptions, the problem is tractable both in theory and in practice for computing best two-out-of-three combinations. Concretely, for the case of two protocols, we utilize program analysis techniques—which we tailor to MPC—to define a new integer program, which we term the ``Optimal Protocol Assignment” (in short, OPA) problem whose solution is the optimal (mixed) protocol assignment for these two protocols. Most importantly, we prove that the solution to the linear program corresponding to the relaxation of OPA is integral, and hence is also a solution to OPA. Since linear programming can be efficiently solved, this yields the first efficient protocol mixer. We showcase the quality of our OPA solver by applying it to standard benchmarks from the mixing literature. Our OPA solver can be applied on any two-out-of-three protocol combinations to obtain a best two-out-of-three protocol assignment.

  22. A High-Assurance Evaluator for Machine-Checked Secure Multiparty Computation 2019 CCS MachineCheckedProof MPC
    Karim Eldefrawy and Vitor Pereira

    Secure Multiparty Computation (MPC) enables a group of n distrusting parties to jointly compute a function using private inputs. MPC guarantees correctness of computation and confidentiality of inputs if no more than a threshold t of the parties are corrupted. Proactive MPC (PMPC) addresses the stronger threat model of a mobile adversary that controls a changing set of parties (but only up to t at any instant), and may eventually corrupt all n parties over a long time.

    This paper takes a first stab at developing high-assurance implementations of (P)MPC. We formalize in EasyCrypt, a tool-assisted framework for building high-confidence cryptographic proofs, several abstract and reusable variations of secret sharing and of (P)MPC protocols building on them. Using those, we prove a series of abstract theorems for the proactive setting. We implement and perform computer-checked security proofs of concrete instantiations of the required (abstract) protocols in EasyCrypt.

    We also develop a new tool-chain to extract high-assurance executable implementations of protocols formalized and verified in EasyCrypt. Our tool-chain uses Why as an intermediate tool, and enables us to extract executable code from our (P)MPC formalizations. We conduct an evaluation of the extracted executables by comparing their performance to performance of manually implemented versions using Python-based Charm framework for prototyping cryptographic schemes. We argue that the small overhead of our high-assurance executables is a reasonable price to pay for the increased confidence about their correctness and security.

  23. ABY3 : A Mixed Protocol Framework for Machine Learning 2018 CCS MachineLearning MPC Privacy
    Payman Mohassel and Peter Rindal

    Abstract: Machine learning is widely used to produce models for a range of applications and is increasingly offered as a service by major technology companies. However, the required massive data collection raises privacy concerns during both training and prediction stages.

    In this paper, we design and implement a general framework for privacy-preserving machine learning and use it to obtain new solutions for training linear regression, logistic regression and neural network models. Our protocols are in a three-server model wherein data owners secret share their data among three servers who train and evaluate models on the joint data using three-party computation (3PC).

    Our main contribution is a new and complete framework (ABY3) for efficiently switching back and forth between arithmetic, binary, and Yao 3PC which is of independent interest. Many of the conversions are based on new techniques that are designed and optimized for the first time in this paper. We also propose new techniques for fixed-point multiplication of shared decimal values that extends beyond the three-party case, and customized protocols for evaluating piecewise polynomial functions. We design variants of each building block that is secure against {\em malicious adversaries} who deviate arbitrarily.

    We implement our system in C++. Our protocols are up to {\em four orders of magnitude} faster than the best prior work, hence significantly reducing the gap between privacy-preserving and plaintext training.

  24. MCMix: Anonymous Messaging via Secure Multiparty Computation 2017 MPC Usenix
    Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Aggelos Kiayias, Riivo Talviste, and Thomas Zacharias

    We present MCMix, an anonymous messaging system that completely hides communication metadata and can scale in the order of hundreds of thousands of users. Our approach is to isolate two suitable functionalities, called dialing and conversation, that when used in succession, realize anonymous messaging. With this as a starting point, we apply secure multiparty computation (“MC” or MPC) and proceed to realize them. We then present an implementation using Sharemind, a prevalent MPC system. Our implementation is competitive in terms of latency with previous messaging systems that only offer weaker privacy guarantees. Our solution can be instantiated in a variety of different ways with different MPC implementations, overall illustrating how MPC is a viable and competitive alternative to mix-nets and DC-nets for anonymous communication.

  25. Optimized Honest-Majority MPC for Malicious Adversaries - Breaking the 1 Billion-Gate Per Second Barrier 2017 MPC Oakland
    T. Araki, A. Barak, J. Furukawa, T. Lichter, Y. Lindell, A. Nof, K. Ohara, A. Watzman and O. Weinstein

    Secure multiparty computation enables a set of parties to securely carry out a joint computation of their private inputs without revealing anything but the output. In the past few years, the efficiency of secure computation protocols has increased in leaps and bounds. However, when considering the case of security in the presence of malicious adversaries (who may arbitrarily deviate from the protocol specification), we are still very far from achieving high efficiency. In this paper, we consider the specific case of three parties and an honest majority. We provide general techniques for improving efficiency of cut-and-choose protocols on multiplication triples and utilize them to significantly improve the recently published protocol of Furukawa et al. (ePrint 2016/944). We reduce the bandwidth of their protocol down from 10 bits per AND gate to 7 bits per AND gate, and show how to improve some computationally expensive parts of their protocol. Most notably, we design cache-efficient shuffling techniques for implementing cut-and-choose without randomly permuting large arrays (which is very slow due to continual cache misses). We provide a combinatorial analysis of our techniques, bounding the cheating probability of the adversary. Our implementation achieves a rate of approximately 1.15 billion AND gates per second on a cluster of three 20-core machines with a lOGbps network. Thus, we can securely compute 212,000 AES encryptions per second (which is hundreds of times faster than previous work for this setting). Our results demonstrate that high-throughput secure computation for malicious adversaries is possible.