Isolated Execution Environments (IEE) offered by novel commodity hardware such as Intel’s SGX deployed in Skylake processors permit executing software in a protected environment that shields it from a malicious operating system; it also permits a remote user to obtain strong interactive attestation guarantees on both the code running in an IEE and its input/output behaviour. In this paper we show how IEEs provide a new path to constructing general secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols. Our protocol is intuitive and elegant: it uses code within an IEE to play the role of a trusted third party (TTP), and the attestation guarantees of SGX to bootstrap secure communications between participants and the TTP. In our protocol the load of communications and computations on participants only depends on the size of each party’s inputs and outputs and is thus small and independent from the intricacy of the functionality to be computed. The remaining computational load– essentially that of computing the functionality – is moved to an untrusted party running an IEE-enabled machine, an appealing feature for Cloud-based scenarios. However, as often the case even with the simplest cryptographic protocols, we found that there is a large gap between this intuitively appealing solution and a protocol with rigorous security guarantees. We bridge this gap through a comprehensive set of results that include: i. a detailed construction of a protocol for secure computation for arbitrary functionalities; ii. formal security definitions for the security of the overall protocol and that of its components; and iii. a modular security analysis of our protocol that relies on a novel notion of labeled attested computation. We implemented and extensively evaluated our solution on SGX-enabled hardware, providing detailed measurements of our protocol as well as comparisons with software-only MPC solutions. Furthermore, we show the cost induced by using constant-time, i.e., timing side channel resilient, code in our implementation.
A one-time program (OTP) works as follows: Alice provides Bob with the implementation of some function. Bob can have the function evaluated exclusively on a single input of his choosing. Once executed, the program will fail to evaluate on any other input. State-of-the-art one-time programs have remained theoretical, requiring custom hardware that is cost-ineffective/unavailable, or confined to adhoc/unrealistic assumptions. To bridge this gap, we explore how the Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) of modern CPUs can realize the OTP functionality. Specifically, we build two flavours of such a system: in the first, the TEE directly enforces the one-timeness of the program; in the second, the program is represented with a garbled circuit and the TEE ensures Bob’s input can only be wired into the circuit once, equivalent to a smaller cryptographic primitive called one-time memory. These have different performance profiles: the first is best when Alice’s input is small and Bob’s is large, and the second for the converse.
Intel Software Guard Extension (SGX) offers software applications a shielded execution environment, dubbed enclave, to protect their confidentiality and integrity from malicious operating systems. As processors with this extended feature become commercially available, many new software applications are developed to enrich to the SGX-enabled ecosystem. One important primitive for these applications is a secure communication channel between the enclave and a remote trusted party. The SSL/TLS protocol, which is the de facto standard for protecting transport-layer network communications, has been broadly regarded a natural choice for such purposes. However, in this paper, we show that the marriage between SGX and SSL may not be smooth sailing.
Particularly, we consider a category of side-channel attacks against SSL/TLS implementations in secure enclaves, which we call the control-flow inference attacks. In these attacks, the malicious operating system kernel may perform a powerful man-in-the-kernel attack to collect execution traces of the enclave programs at the page level, the cacheline level, or the branch level, while positioning itself in the middle of the two communicating parties. At the center of our work is a differential analysis framework, dubbed Stacco, to dynamically analyze the SSL/TLS implementations and detect vulnerabilities-discernible execution traces-that can be exploited as decryption oracles. Surprisingly, in spite of the prevailing constant-time programming paradigm adopted by many cryptographic libraries, we found exploitable vulnerabilities in the latest versions of all the SSL/TLS libraries we have examined.
To validate the detected vulnerabilities, we developed a man-in-the-kernel adversary to demonstrate Bleichenbacher attacks against the latest OpenSSL library running in the SGX enclave (with the help of Graphene) and completely broke the PreMasterSecret encrypted by a 4096-bit RSA public key with only 57286 queries. We also conducted CBC padding oracle attacks against the latest GnuTLS running in Graphene-SGX and an open-source SGX implementation of mbedTLS (i.e., mbedTLS-SGX) that runs directly inside the enclave, and showed that it only needs 48388 and 25717 queries, respectively, to break one block of AES ciphertext. Empirical evaluation suggests these man-in-the-kernel attacks can be completed within 1 or 2 hours. Our results reveal the insufficient understanding of side-channel security in SGX settings, and our study will provoke discussions on the secure implementation and adoption of SSL/TLS in secure enclaves.
Functional encryption (FE) is an extremely powerful cryptographic mechanism that lets an authorized entity compute on encrypted data, and learn the results in the clear. However, all current cryptographic instantiations for general FE are too impractical to be implemented. We construct IRON, a provably secure, and practical FE system using Intel’s recent Software Guard Extensions (SGX). We show that IRON can be applied to complex functionalities, and even for simple functions, outperforms the best known cryptographic schemes. We argue security by modeling FE in the context of hardware elements, and prove that IRON satisfies the security model.
We propose Tesseract, a secure real-time cryptocurrency exchange service. Existing centralized exchange designs are vulnerable to theft of funds, while decentralized exchanges cannot offer real-time cross-chain trades. All currently deployed exchanges are also vulnerable to frontrunning attacks. Tesseract overcomes these flaws and achieves a best-of-both-worlds design by using Intel SGX as a trusted execution environment. Furthermore, by running a consensus protocol among SGX-enabled servers, Tesseract mitigates denial-of-service attacks. Tesseract supports not only real-time cross-chain cryptocurrency trades, but also secure tokenization of assets pegged to cryptocurrencies. For instance, Tesseract-tokenized bitcoins can circulate on the Ethereum blockchain for use in smart contracts. We provide a reference implementation of Tesseract that supports Bitcoin, Ethereum, and similar cryptocurrencies.
Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX) remote attestation enables enclaves to authenticate hardware inside which they run, and attest the integrity of their enclave memory to the remote party. To enforce direct control of attestation, Intel mandates attestation to be verified by Intel’s attestation service. This Intel-centric attestation model, however, neither protects privacy nor performs efficiently when distributed and frequent attestation is required. This paper presents OPERA, an Open Platform for Enclave Remote Attestation. Without involving Intel’s attestation service while conducting attestation, OPERA is unchained from Intel, although it relies on Intel to establish a chain of trust whose anchor point is the secret rooted in SGX hardware. OPERA is open, as the implementation of its attestation service is completely open, allowing any enclave developer to run her own OPERA service, and its execution is publicly verifiable and hence trustworthy; OPERA is privacy-preserving, as the attestation service does not learn which enclave is being attested or when the attestation takes place; OPERA is performant, as it does not rely on a single-point-of-verification and also reduces the latency of verification.
Meltdown and Spectre enable arbitrary data leakage from memory via various side channels. Short-term software mitigations for Meltdown are only a temporary solution with a significant performance overhead. Due to hardware fixes, these mitigations are disabled on recent processors. In this paper, we show that Meltdown-like attacks are still possible on recent CPUs which are not vulnerable to Meltdown. We identify two behaviors of the store buffer, a microarchitectural resource to reduce the latency for data stores, that enable powerful attacks. The first behavior, Write Transient Forwarding forwards data from stores to subsequent loads even when the load address differs from that of the store. The second, Store-to-Leak exploits the interaction between the TLB and the store buffer to leak metadata on store addresses. Based on these, we develop multiple attacks and demonstrate data leakage, control flow recovery, and attacks on ASLR. Our paper shows that Meltdown-like attacks are still possible, and software fixes with potentially significant performance overheads are still necessary to ensure proper isolation between the kernel and user space.
Modern multi-core processors share cache resources for maximum cache utilization and performance gains. However, this leaves the cache vulnerable to side-channel attacks, where inherent timing differences in shared cache behavior are exploited to infer information on the victim’s execution patterns, ultimately leaking private information such as a secret key. The root cause for these attacks is mutually distrusting processes sharing the cache entries and accessing them in a deterministic and consistent manner. Various defenses against cache side-channel attacks have been proposed. However, they suffer from serious shortcomings: they either degrade performance significantly, impose impractical restrictions, or can only defeat certain classes of these attacks. More importantly, they assume that side-channel-resilient caches are required for the entire execution workload and do not allow the possibility to selectively enable the mitigation only for the security-critical portion of the workload.
We present a generic mechanism for a flexible and soft partitioning of set-associative caches and propose a hybrid cache architecture, called HybCache. HybCache can be configured to selectively apply side-channel-resilient cache behavior only for isolated execution domains, while providing the non-isolated execution with conventional cache behavior, capacity and performance. An isolation domain can include one or more processes, specific portions of code, or a Trusted Execution Environment (e.g., SGX or TrustZone). We show that, with minimal hardware modifications and kernel support, HybCache can provide side-channel-resilient cache only for isolated execution with a performance overhead of 3.5–5%, while incurring no performance overhead for the remaining execution workload. We provide a simulator-based and hardware implementation of HybCache to evaluate the performance and area overheads, and show how HybCache mitigates typical access-based and contention-based cache attacks
Hardware enclaves are designed to execute small pieces of sensitive code or to operate on sensitive data, in isolation from larger, less trusted systems. Partitioning a large, legacy application requires significant effort. Partitioning an application written in a managed language, such as Java, is more challenging because of mutable language characteristics, extensive code reachability in class libraries, and the inevitability of using a heavyweight runtime.
Civet is a framework for partitioning Java applications into enclaves. Civet reduces the number of lines of code in the enclave and uses language-level defenses, including deep type checks and dynamic taint-tracking, to harden the enclave interface. Civet also contributes a partitioned Java runtime design, including a garbage collection design optimized for the peculiarities of enclaves. Civet is efficient for data-intensive workloads; partitioning a Hadoop mapper reduces the enclave overhead from 10× to 16–22% without taint-tracking or 70–80% with taint-tracking.
Security architectures such as Intel SGX need protection against rollback attacks, where the adversary violates the integrity of a protected application state by replaying old persistently stored data or by starting multiple application instances. Successful rollback attacks have serious consequences on applications such as financial services. In this paper, we propose a new approach for rollback protection on SGX. The intuition behind our approach is simple. A single platform cannot efficiently prevent rollback, but in many practical scenarios, multiple processors can be enrolled to assist each other. We design and implement a rollback protection system called ROTE that realizes integrity protection as a distributed system. We construct a model that captures adversarial ability to schedule enclave execution and show that our solution achieves a strong security property: the only way to violate integrity is to reset all participating platforms to their initial state. We implement ROTE and demonstrate that distributed rollback protection can provide significantly better performance than previously known solutions based on local non-volatile memory.
We introduce a new concept called brokered delegation. Brokered delegation allows users to flexibly delegate credentials and rights for a range of service providers to other users and third parties. We explore how brokered delegation can be implemented using novel trusted execution environments (TEEs). We introduce a system called DelegaTEE that enables users (Delegatees) to log into different online services using the credentials of other users (Owners). Credentials in DelegaTEE are never revealed to Delegatees and Owners can restrict access to their accounts using a range of rich, contextually dependent delegation policies.
DelegaTEE fundamentally shifts existing access control models for centralized online services. It does so by using TEEs to permit access delegation at the user’s discretion. DelegaTEE thus effectively reduces mandatory access control (MAC) in this context to discretionary access control (DAC). The system demonstrates the significant potential for TEEs to create new forms of resource sharing around online services without the direct support from those services.
We present a full implementation of DelegaTEE using Intel SGX and demonstrate its use in four real-world applications: email access (SMTP/IMAP), restricted website access using a HTTPS proxy, e-banking/credit card, and a third-party payment system (PayPal).
Trusted execution environments, and particularly the Software Guard eXtensions (SGX) included in recent Intel x86 processors, gained significant traction in recent years. A long track of research papers, and increasingly also real-world industry applications, take advantage of the strong hardware-enforced confidentiality and integrity guarantees provided by Intel SGX. Ultimately, enclaved execution holds the compelling potential of securely offloading sensitive computations to untrusted remote platforms.
We present Foreshadow, a practical software-only microarchitectural attack that decisively dismantles the security objectives of current SGX implementations. Crucially, unlike previous SGX attacks, we do not make any assumptions on the victim enclave’s code and do not necessarily require kernel-level access. At its core, Foreshadow abuses a speculative execution bug in modern Intel processors, on top of which we develop a novel exploitation methodology to reliably leak plaintext enclave secrets from the CPU cache. We demonstrate our attacks by extracting full cryptographic keys from Intel’s vetted architectural enclaves, and validate their correctness by launching rogue production enclaves and forging arbitrary local and remote attestation responses. The extracted remote attestation keys affect millions of devices.
Search indices are fundamental building blocks of many systems, and there is great interest in running them on encrypted data. Unfortunately, many known schemes that enable search queries on encrypted data achieve efficiency at the expense of security, as they reveal access patterns to the encrypted data. In this paper we present Oblix, a search index for encrypted data that is oblivious (provably hides access patterns), is dynamic (supports inserts and deletes), and has good efficiency. Oblix relies on a combination of novel oblivious-access techniques and recent hardware enclave platforms (e.g., Intel SGX). In particular, a key technical contribution is the design and implementation of doubly-oblivious data structures, in which the client’s accesses to its internal memory are oblivious, in addition to accesses to its external memory at the server. These algorithms are motivated by hardware enclaves like SGX, which leak access patterns to both internal and external memory. We demonstrate the usefulness of Oblix in several applications: private contact discovery for Signal, private retrieval of public keys for Key Transparency, and searchable encryption that hides access patterns and result sizes.
Program obfuscation is a popular cryptographic construct with a wide range of uses such as IP theft prevention. Although cryptographic solutions for program obfuscation impose impractically high overheads, a recent breakthrough leveraging trusted hardware has shown promise. However, the existing solution is based on special-purpose trusted hardware, restricting its use-cases to a limited few.
In this paper, we first study if such obfuscation is feasible based on commodity trusted hardware, Intel SGX, and we observe that certain important security considerations are not afforded by commodity hardware. In particular, we found that existing obfuscation/obliviousness schemes are insecure if directly applied to Intel SGX primarily due to side-channel limitations. To this end, we present OBFUSCURO, the first system providing program obfuscation using commodity trusted hardware, Intel SGX. The key idea is to leverage ORAM operations to perform secure code execution and data access. Initially, OBFUSCURO transforms the regular program layout into a side-channel-secure and ORAM-compatible layout. Then, OBFUSCURO ensures that its ORAM controller performs data oblivious accesses in order to protect itself from all memory-based side-channels. Furthermore, OBFUSCURO ensures that the program is secure from timing attacks by ensuring that the program always runs for a pre-configured time interval. Along the way, OBFUSCURO also introduces a systematic optimization such as register-based ORAM stash. We provide a thorough security analysis of OBFUSCURO along with empirical attack evaluations showing that OBFUSCURO can protect the SGX program execution from being leaked by access pattern-based and timing-based channels. We also provide a detailed performance benchmark results in order to show the practical aspects of OBFUSCURO.
Intel SGX provides confidentiality and integrity of a program running within the con nes of an enclave, and is expected to enable valuable security applications such as private information retrieval. This paper is concerned with the security aspects of SGX in accessing a key system resource, les. Through concrete attack scenarios, we show that all existing SGX lesystems are vulnerable to either system call snooping, page fault, or cache based side-channel attacks. To address this security limitations in current SGX lesystems, we present OBLIVIATE, a data oblivious lesystem for Intel SGX. The key idea behind OBLIVIATE is in adapting the ORAM protocol to read and write data from a le within an SGX enclave. OBLIVIATE redesigns the conceptual components of ORAM for SGX environments, and it seamlessly supports an SGX program without requiring any changes in the application layer. OBLIVIATE also employs SGX-speci c defenses and optimizations in order to ensure complete security with acceptable overhead. The evaluation of the prototype of OBLIVIATE demonstrated its practical effectiveness in running popular server applications such as SQLite and Lighttpd, while also achieving a throughput improvement of 2×- 8× over a baseline ORAM-based solution, and less than 2× overhead over an in-memory SGX lesystem.
We are witnessing a confluence between applied cryptography and secure hardware systems in enabling secure cloud computing. On one hand, work in applied cryptography has enabled efficient, oblivious data-structures and memory primitives. On the other, secure hardware and the emergence of Intel SGX has enabled a low-overhead and mass market mechanism for isolated execution. By themselves these technologies have their disadvantages. Oblivious memory primitives carry high performance overheads, especially when run non-interactively. Intel SGX, while more efficient, suffers from numerous software-based side-channel attacks, high context switching costs, and bounded memory size.
In this work we build a new library of oblivious memory primitives, which we call ZeroTrace. ZeroTrace is designed to carefully combine state-of-the-art oblivious RAM techniques and SGX, while mitigating individual disadvantages of these technologies. To the best of our knowledge, ZeroTrace represents the first oblivious memory primitives running on a real secure hardware platform. ZeroTrace simultaneously enables a dramatic speed-up over pure cryptography and protection from software-based side-channel attacks. The core of our design is an efficient and flexible block-level memory controller that provides oblivious execution against any active software adversary, and across asynchronous SGX enclave terminations. Performance-wise, the memory controller can service requests for 4
B blocks in 1.2ms and 1 KB blocks in 3.4ms (given a 10~GB dataset). On top of our memory controller, we evaluate Set/Dictionary/List interfaces which can all perform basic operations (e.g., get/put/insert).
We propose EnclaveDB, a database engine that guarantees confidentiality, integrity, and freshness for data and queries. EnclaveDB guarantees these properties even when the database administrator is malicious, when an attacker has compromised the operating system or the hypervisor, and when the database runs in an untrusted host in the cloud. EnclaveDB achieves this by placing sensitive data (tables, indexes and other metadata) in enclaves protected by trusted hardware (such as Intel SGX). EnclaveDB has a small trusted computing base, which includes an in-memory storage and query engine, a transaction manager and pre-compiled stored procedures. A key component of EnclaveDB is an efficient protocol for checking integrity and freshness of the database log. The protocol supports concurrent, asynchronous appends and truncation, and requires minimal synchronization between threads. Our experiments using standard database benchmarks and a performance model that simulates large enclaves show that EnclaveDB achieves strong security with low overhead (up to 40% for TPC-C) compared to an industry strength in-memory database engine.
In this work we investigate the problem of achieving secure computation by combining stateless trusted devices with public ledgers. We consider a hybrid paradigm in which a client-side device (such as a co-processor or trusted enclave) performs secure computation, while interacting with a public ledger via a possibly malicious host computer. We explore both the constructive and potentially destructive implications of such systems. We first show that this combination allows for the construction of stateful interactive functionalities (including general computation) even when the device has no persistent storage; this allows us to build sophisticated applications using inexpensive trusted hardware or even pure cryptographic obfuscation techniques. We further show how to use this paradigm to achieve censorship-resistant communication with a network, even when network communications are mediated by a potentially malicious host. Finally we describe a number of practical applications that can be achieved today. These include the synchronization of private smart contracts; rate limited mandatory logging; strong encrypted backups from weak passwords; enforcing fairness in multi-party computation; and destructive applications such as autonomous ransomware, which allows for payments without an online party.