An attempt to derive signer-efficient digital signatures from aggregate signatures was made in a signature scheme referred to as Structure-free Compact Rapid Authentication (SCRA) (IEEE TIFS 2017). In this paper, we first mount a practical universal forgery attack against the NTRU instantiation of SCRA by observing only 8161 signatures. Second, we propose a new signature scheme (FAAS), which transforms any single-signer aggregate signature scheme into a signer-efficient scheme. We show two efficient instantiations of FAAS, namely, FAAS-NTRU and FAAS-RSA, both of which achieve high computational efficiency. Our experiments confirmed that FAAS schemes achieve up to 100x faster signature generation compared to their underlying schemes. Moreover, FAAS schemes eliminate some of the costly operations such as Gaussian sampling, rejection sampling, and exponentiation at the signature generation that are shown to be susceptible to side-channel attacks. This enables FAAS schemes to enhance the security and efficiency of their underlying schemes. Finally, we prove that FAAS schemes are secure (in random oracle model), and open-source both our attack and FAAS implementations for public testing purposes.
Recently, NIST started the process of standardizing quantum- resistant public-key cryptographic algorithms. WalnutDSA, the subject of this paper, is one of the 20 proposed signature schemes that are being considered for standardization. Walnut relies on a one-way function called E-Multiplication, which has a rich algebraic structure. This paper shows that this structure can be exploited to launch several practical attacks against the Walnut cryptosystem. The attacks work very well in practice; it is possible to forge signatures and compute equivalent secret keys for the 128-bit and 256-bit security parameters submitted to NIST in less than a second and in less than a minute respectively.
A chosen-prefix collision attack is a stronger variant of a collision attack, where an arbitrary pair of challenge prefixes are turned into a collision. Chosen-prefix collisions are usually significantly harder to produce than (identical-prefix) collisions, but the practical impact of such an attack is much larger. While many cryptographic constructions rely on collision-resistance for their security proofs, collision attacks are hard to turn into a break of concrete protocols, because the adversary has limited control over the colliding messages. On the other hand, chosen-prefix collisions have been shown to break certificates (by creating a rogue CA) and many internet protocols (TLS, SSH, IPsec).
In this article, we propose new techniques to turn collision attacks into chosen-prefix collision attacks. Our strategy is composed of two phases: first, a birthday search that aims at taking the random chaining variable difference (due to the chosen-prefix model) to a set of pre-defined target differences. Then, using a multi-block approach, carefully analysing the clustering effect, we map this new chaining variable difference to a colliding pair of states using techniques developed for collision attacks.
We apply those techniques to MD5 and SHA1, and obtain improved attacks. In particular, we have a chosen-prefix collision attack against SHA1 with complexity between 266.9 and 269.4 (depending on assumptions about the cost of finding near-collision blocks), while the best-known attack has complexity 277.1. This is within a small factor of the complexity of the classical collision attack on SHA1 (estimated as 264.7). This represents yet another warning that industries and users have to move away from using SHA1 as soon as possible.
Modern stream ciphers often adopt a large internal state to resist various attacks, where the cryptanalysts have to deal with a large number of variables when mounting state recovery attacks. In this paper, we propose a general new cryptanalytic method on stream ciphers, called fast near collision attack, to address this situation. It combines a near collision property with the divide-and-conquer strategy so that only subsets of the internal state, associated with different keystream vectors, are recovered first and merged carefully later to retrieve the full large internal state. A self-contained method is introduced and improved to derive the target subset of the internal state from the partial state difference efficiently. As an application, we propose a new key recovery attack on Grain v1, one of the 7 finalists selected by the eSTREAM project, in the single-key setting. Both the pre-computation and the online phases are tailored according to its internal structure, to provide an attack for any fixed IV in 275.7 cipher ticks after the pre-computation of 28.1 cipher ticks, given 228-bit memory and about 219 keystream bits. Practical experiments on Grain v1 itself whenever possible and on a 80-bit reduced version confirmed our results.
The counter mode (CTR) is a simple, efficient and widely used encryption mode using a block cipher. It comes with a security proof that guarantees no attacks up to the birthday bound (i.e. as long as the number of encrypted blocks σ satisfies σ≪2n/2), and a matching attack that can distinguish plaintext/ciphertext pairs from random using about 2n/2 blocks of data.
The main goal of this paper is to study attacks against the counter mode beyond this simple distinguisher. We focus on message recovery attacks, with realistic assumptions about the capabilities of an adversary, and evaluate the full time complexity of the attacks rather than just the query complexity. Our main result is an attack to recover a block of message with complexity O~(2n/2). This shows that the actual security of CTR is similar to that of CBC, where collision attacks are well known to reveal information about the message.
To achieve this result, we study a simple algorithmic problem related to the security of the CTR mode: the missing difference problem. We give efficient algorithms for this problem in two practically relevant cases: where the missing difference is known to be in some linear subspace, and when the amount of data is higher than strictly required.
As a further application, we show that the second algorithm can also be used to break some polynomial MACs such as GMAC and Poly1305, with a universal forgery attack with complexity O~(22n/3).
A boomerang attack is a cryptanalysis framework that regards a block cipher E as the composition of two sub-ciphers E1∘E0 and builds a particular characteristic for E with probability p2q2 by combining differential characteristics for E0 and E1 with probability p and q, respectively. Crucially the validity of this figure is under the assumption that the characteristics for E0 and E1 can be chosen independently. Indeed, Murphy has shown that independently chosen characteristics may turn out to be incompatible. On the other hand, several researchers observed that the probability can be improved to p or q around the boundary between E0 and E1 by considering a positive dependency of the two characteristics, e.g.~the ladder switch and S-box switch by Biryukov and Khovratovich. This phenomenon was later formalised by Dunkelman et al.~as a sandwich attack that regards E as E1∘Em∘E0, where Em satisfies some differential propagation among four texts with probability r, and the entire probability is p2q2r. In this paper, we revisit the issue of dependency of two characteristics in Em, and propose a new tool called Boomerang Connectivity Table (BCT), which evaluates r in a systematic and easy-to-understand way when Em is composed of a single S-box layer. With the BCT, previous observations on the S-box including the incompatibility, the ladder switch and the S-box switch are represented in a unified manner. Moreover, the BCT can detect a new switching effect, which shows that the probability around the boundary may be even higher than p or q. To illustrate the power of the BCT-based analysis, we improve boomerang attacks against Deoxys-BC, and disclose the mechanism behind an unsolved probability amplification for generating a quartet in SKINNY. Lastly, we discuss the issue of searching for S-boxes having good BCT and extending the analysis to modular addition.
Division property is a generalized integral property proposed by Todo at Eurocrypt 2015. Previous tools for automatic searching are mainly based on the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) method and trace the division property propagation at the bit level. In this paper, we propose automatic tools to detect ARX ciphers’ division property at the bit level and some specific ciphers’ division property at the word level. For ARX ciphers, we construct the automatic searching tool relying on Boolean Satisfiability Problem (SAT) instead of MILP, since SAT method is more suitable in the search of ARX ciphers’ differential/linear characteristics. The propagation of division property is translated into a system of logical equations in Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). Some logical equations can be dynamically adjusted according to different initial division properties and stopping rule, while the others corresponding to r-round propagations remain the same. Moreover, our approach can efficiently identify some optimized distinguishers with lower data complexity. As a result, we obtain a 17-round distinguisher for SHACAL-2, which gains four more rounds than previous work, and an 8-round distinguisher for LEA, which covers one more round than the former one. For word-based division property, we develop the automatic search based on Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT), which is a generalization of SAT. We model division property propagations of basic operations and S-boxes by logical formulas, and turn the searching problem into an SMT problem. With some available solvers, we achieve some new distinguishers. For CLEFIA, 10-round distinguishers are obtained, which cover one more round than the previous work. For the internal block cipher of Whirlpool, the data complexities of 4/5-round distinguishers are improved. For Rijndael-192 and Rijndael-256, 6-round distinguishers are presented, which attain two more rounds than the published ones. Besides, the integral attacks for CLEFIA are improved by one round with the newly obtained distinguishers.
SHA-1 is a widely used 1995 NIST cryptographic hash function standard that was officially deprecated by NIST in 2011 due to fundamental security weaknesses demonstrated in various analyses and theoretical attacks. Despite its deprecation, SHA-1 remains widely used in 2017 for document and TLS certificate signatures, and also in many software such as the GIT versioning system for integrity and backup purposes.
A key reason behind the reluctance of many industry players to replace SHA-1 with a safer alternative is the fact that finding an actual collision has seemed to be impractical for the past eleven years due to the high complexity and computational cost of the attack.
In this paper, we demonstrate that SHA-1 collision attacks have finally become practical by providing the first known instance of a collision.
Furthermore, the prefix of the colliding messages was carefully chosen so that they allow an attacker to forge two distinct PDF documents with the same SHA-1 hash that display different arbitrarily-chosen visual contents.
We were able to find this collision by combining many special cryptanalytic techniques in complex ways and improving upon previous work. In total the computational effort spent is equivalent to 2^63.1 calls to SHA-1’s compression function, and took approximately 6,500 CPU years and 100 GPU years. While the computational power spent on this collision is larger than other public cryptanalytic computations, it is still more than 100,000 times faster than a brute force search.
Conditional cube attack is an efficient key-recovery attack on Keccak keyed modes proposed by Huang et al. at EUROCRYPT 2017. By assigning bit conditions, the diffusion of a conditional cube variable is reduced. Then, using a greedy algorithm (Algorithm 4 in Huang et al.’s paper), Huang et al. find some ordinary cube variables, that do not multiply together in the 1st round and do not multiply with the conditional cube variable in the 2nd round. Then the key-recovery attack is launched. The key part of conditional cube attack is to find enough ordinary cube variables. Note that, the greedy algorithm given by Huang et al. adds ordinary cube variable without considering its bad effect, i.e. the new ordinary cube variable may result in that many other variables could not be selected as ordinary cube variable (they multiply with the new ordinary cube variable in the first round).
In this paper, we bring out a new MILP model to solve the above problem. We show how to model the CP-like-kernel and model the way that the ordinary cube variables do not multiply together in the 1st round as well as do not multiply with the conditional cube variable in the 2nd round. Based on these modeling strategies, a series of linear inequalities are given to restrict the way to add an ordinary cube variable. Then, by choosing the objective function of the maximal number of ordinary cube variables, we convert Huang et al.’s greedy algorithm into an MILP problem and the maximal ordinary cube variables are found.
Using this new MILP tool, we improve Huang et al.’s key-recovery attacks on reduced-round Keccak-MAC-384 and Keccak-MAC-512 by 1 round, get the first 7-round and 6-round key-recovery attacks, respectively. For Ketje Major, we conclude that when the nonce is no less than 11 lanes, a 7-round key-recovery attack could be achieved. In addition, for Ketje Minor, we use conditional cube variable with 6-6-6 pattern to launch 7-round key-recovery attack.