Papers tagged as 2019
  1. Breach-Resistant Structured Encryption 2019 EncryptedDatabases PETS SearchableEncryption eprint.iacr.org
    Ghous Amjad, Seny Kamara, Tarik Moataz

    Motivated by the problem of data breaches, we formalize a notion of security for dynamic structured encryption (STE) schemes that guarantees security against a snapshot adversary; that is, an adversary that receives a copy of the encrypted structure at various times but does not see the transcripts related to any queries. In particular, we focus on the construction of dynamic encrypted multi-maps which are used to build efficient searchable symmetric encryption schemes, graph encryption schemes and encrypted relational databases. Interestingly, we show that a form of snapshot security we refer to as breach resistance implies previously-studied notions such as a (weaker version) of history independence and write-only obliviousness. Moreover, we initiate the study of dual-secure dynamic STE constructions: schemes that are forward-private against a persistent adversary and breach-resistant against a snapshot adversary. The notion of forward privacy guarantees that updates to the encrypted structure do not reveal their association to any query made in the past. As a concrete instantiation, we propose a new dual-secure dynamic multi-map encryption scheme that outperforms all existing constructions; including schemes that are not dual-secure. Our construction has query complexity that grows with the selectivity of the query and the number of deletes since the client executed a linear-time rebuild protocol which can be de-amortized. We implemented our scheme (with the de-amortized rebuild protocol) and evaluated its concrete efficiency empirically. Our experiments show that it is highly efficient with queries taking less than 1 microsecond per label/value pair.

  2. Revisiting Leakage Abuse Attacks 2019 Attacks EncryptedDatabases SearchableEncryption eprint.iacr.org
    Laura Blackstone, Seny Kamara, Tarik Moataz

    Encrypted search algorithms (ESA) are cryptographic algorithms that support search over encrypted data. ESAs can be designed with various primitives including searchable/structured symmetric encryption (SSE/STE) and oblivious RAM (ORAM). Leakage abuse attacks attempt to recover client queries using knowledge of the client’s data. An important parameter for any leakage-abuse attack is its known-data rate; that is, the fraction of client data that must be known to the adversary.


    In this work, we revisit leakage abuse attacks in several ways. We first highlight some practical limitations and assumptions underlying the well-known IKK (Islam et al. NDSS ’12) and Count (Cash et al., CCS ’15) attacks. We then design four new leakage-abuse attacks that rely on much weaker assumptions. Three of these attacks are volumetric in the sense that they only exploit leakage related to document sizes. In particular, this means that they work not only on SSE/STE-based ESAs but also against ORAM-based solutions. We also introduce two volumetric injection attack which use adversarial file additions to recover queries even from ORAM-based solutions. As far as we know, these are the first attacks of their kind.


    We evaluated all our attacks empirically and considered many experimental settings including different data collections, query selectivities, known-data rates, query space size and composition. From our experiments, we observed that the only setting that resulted in reasonable recovery rates under practical assumptions was the case of high-selectivity queries with a leakage profile that includes the response identity pattern (i.e., the identifiers of the matching documents) and the volume pattern (i.e., the size of the matching documents). All other attack scenarios either failed or relied on unrealistic assumptions (e.g., very high known-data rates). For this specific setting, we propose several suggestions and countermeasures including the use of schemes like PBS (Kamara et al, CRYPTO ’18), VLH/AVLH (Kamara and Moataz, Eurocrypt ’19 ), or the use of padding techniques like the ones recently proposed by Bost and Fouque (Bost and Fouque, IACR ePrint 2017/1060).

  3. Highly Efficient Key Exchange Protocols with Optimal Tightness 2019 Crypto KeyExchange eprint.iacr.org
    Katriel Cohn-Gordon and Cas Cremers and Kristian Gjøsteen and Håkon Jacobsen and Tibor Jager

    In this paper we give nearly tight reductions for modern implicitly authenticated Diffie-Hellman protocols in the style of the Signal and Noise protocols, which are extremely simple and efficient. Unlike previous approaches, the combination of nearly tight proofs and efficient protocols enables the first real-world instantiations for which the parameters can be chosen in a theoretically sound manner, i.e., according to the bounds of the reductions. Specifically, our reductions have a security loss which is only linear in the number of users μ and constant in the number of sessions per user ℓ. This is much better than most other key exchange proofs which are typically quadratic in the product μℓ. Combined with the simplicity of our protocols, this implies that our protocols are more efficient than the state of the art when soundly instantiated.


    We also prove that our security proofs are optimal: a linear loss in the number of users is unavoidable for our protocols for a large and natural class of reductions.

  4. Scalable Zero Knowledge with no Trusted Setup 2019 Crypto ZK eprint.iacr.org
    Eli Ben-Sasson and Iddo Bentov and Yinon Horesh and Michael Riabzev

    Human dignity demands that personal information, like medical and forensic data, be hidden from the public. But veils of secrecy designed to preserve privacy may also be abused to cover up lies and deceit by parties entrusted with Data, unjustly harming citizens and eroding trust in central institutions.


    Zero knowledge (ZK) proof systems are an ingenious cryptographic solution to the tension between the ideals of personal privacy and institutional integrity, enforcing the latter in a way that does not compromise the former. Public trust demands transparency from ZK systems, meaning they be set up with no reliance on any trusted party, and have no trapdoors that could be exploited by powerful parties to bear false witness. For ZK systems to be used with Big Data, it is imperative that the public verification process scale sublinearly in data size. Transparent ZK proofs that can be verified exponentially faster than data size were first described in the 1990s but early constructions were impractical, and no ZK system realized thus far in code (including that used by crypto-currencies like Zcash) has achieved both transparency and exponential verification speedup, simultaneously, for general computations.


    Here we report the first realization of a transparent ZK system (ZK-STARK) in which verification scales exponentially faster than database size, and moreover, this exponential speedup in verification is observed concretely for meaningful and sequential computations, described next. Our system uses several recent advances on interactive oracle proofs (IOP), such as a “fast” (linear time) IOP system for error correcting codes.


    Our proof-of-concept system allows the Police to prove to the public that the DNA profile of a Presidential Candidate does not appear in the forensic DNA profile database maintained by the Police. The proof, which is generated by the Police, relies on no external trusted party, and reveals no further information about the contents of the database, nor about the candidate’s profile; in particular, no DNA information is disclosed to any party outside the Police. The proof is shorter than the size of the DNA database, and verified faster than the time needed to examine that database naively.

  5. Libra: Succinct Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Optimal Prover Computation 2019 Crypto ZK eprint.iacr.org
    Tiancheng Xie and Jiaheng Zhang and Yupeng Zhang and Charalampos Papamanthou and Dawn Song

    We present Libra, the first zero-knowledge proof system that has both optimal prover time and succinct proof size/verification time. In particular, if C is the size of the circuit being proved (i) the prover time is O(C) irrespective of the circuit type; (ii) the proof size and verification time are both O(d log C) for d-depth log-space uniform circuits (such as RAM programs). In addition Libra features an one-time trusted setup that depends only on the size of the input to the circuit and not on the circuit logic. Underlying Libra is a new linear-time algorithm for the prover of the interactive proof protocol by Goldwasser, Kalai and Rothblum (also known as GKR protocol), as well as an efficient approach to turn the GKR protocol to zero-knowledge using small masking polynomials. Not only does Libra have excellent asymptotics, but it is also efficient in practice. For example, our implementation shows that it takes 200 seconds to generate a proof for constructing a SHA2-based Merkle tree root on 256 leaves, outperforming all existing zero-knowledge proof systems. Proof size and verification time of Libra are also competitive.

  6. Efficient Pseudorandom Correlation Generators: Silent OT Extension and More 2019 Crypto OT eprint.iacr.org
    Elette Boyle and Geoffroy Couteau and Niv Gilboa and Yuval Ishai and Lisa Kohl and Peter Scholl

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) often relies on sources of correlated randomness for better efficiency and simplicity. This is particularly useful for MPC with no honest majority, where input-independent correlated randomness enables a lightweight “non-cryptographic” online phase once the inputs are known. However, since the amount of correlated randomness typically scales with the circuit size of the function being computed, securely generating correlated randomness forms an efficiency bottleneck, involving a large amount of communication and storage. A natural tool for addressing the above limitations is a pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG). A PCG allows two or more parties to securely generate long sources of useful correlated randomness via a local expansion of correlated short seeds and no interaction. PCGs enable MPC with silent preprocessing, where a small amount of interaction used for securely sampling the seeds is followed by silent local generation of correlated pseudorandomness. A concretely efficient PCG for Vector-OLE correlations was recently obtained by Boyle et al. (CCS 2018) based on variants of the learning parity with noise (LPN) assumption over large fields. In this work, we initiate a systematic study of PCGs and present concretely efficient constructions for several types of useful MPC correlations. We obtain the following main contributions:


    – PCG foundations. We give a general security definition for PCGs. Our definition suffices for any MPC protocol satisfying a stronger security requirement that is met by existing protocols. We prove that a stronger security requirement is indeed necessary, and justify our PCG definition by ruling out a stronger and more natural definition.


    – Silent OT extension. We present the first concretely efficient PCG for oblivious transfer correlations. Its security is based on a variant of the binary LPN assumption and any correlation-robust hash function. We expect it to provide a faster alternative to the IKNP OT extension protocol (Crypto ’03) when communication is the bottleneck. We present several applications, including protocols for non-interactive zero-knowledge with bounded-reusable preprocessing from binary LPN, and concretely efficient related-key oblivious pseudorandom functions.


    – PCGs for simple 2-party correlations. We obtain PCGs for several other types of useful 2-party correlations, including (authenticated) one-time truth-tables and Beaver triples. While the latter PCGs are slower than our PCG for OT, they are still practically feasible. These PCGs are based on a host of assumptions and techniques, including specialized homomorphic secret sharing schemes and pseudorandom generators tailored to their structure.


    – Multiparty correlations. We obtain PCGs for multiparty correlations that can be used to make the circuit-dependent communication of MPC protocols scale linearly (instead of quadratically) with the number of parties.

  7. SpOT-Light: Lightweight Private Set Intersection from Sparse OT Extension 2019 Crypto PSI eprint.iacr.org
    Benny Pinkas and Mike Rosulek and Ni Trieu and Avishay Yanai

    We describe a novel approach for two-party private set intersection (PSI) with semi-honest security. Compared to existing PSI protocols, ours has a more favorable balance between communication and computation. Specifically, our protocol has the lowest monetary cost of any known PSI protocol, when run over the Internet using cloud-based computing services (taking into account current rates for CPU + data). On slow networks (e.g., 10Mbps) our protocol is actually the fastest.


    Our novel underlying technique is a variant of oblivious transfer (OT) extension that we call sparse OT extension. Conceptually it can be thought of as a communication-efficient multipoint oblivious PRF evaluation. Our sparse OT technique relies heavily on manipulating high-degree polynomials over large finite fields (i.e. elements whose representation requires hundreds of bits). We introduce extensive algorithmic and engineering improvements for interpolation and multi-point evaluation of such polynomials, which we believe will be of independent interest.


    Finally, we present an extensive empirical comparison of state-of-the- art PSI protocols in several application scenarios and along several dimensions of measurement: running time, communication, peak memory consumption, and — arguably the most relevant metric for practice — monetary cost

  8. Asymmetric Message Franking: Content Moderation for Metadata-Private End-to-End Encryption 2019 Crypto SecureMessaging eprint.iacr.org
    Nirvan Tyagi and Paul Grubbs and Julia Len and Ian Miers and Thomas Ristenpart

    Content moderation is crucial for stopping abuse and harassment via messaging on online platforms. Existing moderation mechanisms, such as message franking, require platform providers to see user identifiers on encrypted traffic. These mechanisms cannot be used in messaging systems in which users can hide their identities, such as Signal. The key technical challenge preventing moderation is in simultaneously achieving cryptographic accountability while preserving deniability. In this work, we resolve this tension with a new cryptographic primitive: asymmetric message franking schemes (AMFs). We define strong security notions for AMFs, including the first formal treatment of deniability in moderation settings. We then construct, analyze, and implement an AMF scheme that is fast enough for deployment. We detail how to use AMFs to build content moderation for metadata-private messaging.

  9. Two-Party ECDSA from Hash Proof Systems and Efficient Instantiations 2019 Crypto EllipticCurves Signatures eprint.iacr.org
    Guilhem Castagnos and Dario Catalano and Fabien Laguillaumie and Federico Savasta and Ida Tucker

    ECDSA is a widely adopted digital signature standard. Unfortunately, efficient distributed variants of this primitive are notoriously hard to achieve and known solutions often require expensive zero knowledge proofs to deal with malicious adversaries. For the two party case, Lindell [Lin17] recently managed to get an efficient solution which, to achieve simulation-based security, relies on an interactive, non standard, assumption on Paillier’s cryptosystem.


    In this paper we generalize Lindell’s solution using hash proof systems. The main advantage of our generic method is that it results in a simulation-based security proof without resorting to non-standard interactive assumptions.


    Moving to concrete constructions, we show how to instantiate our framework using class groups of imaginary quadratic fields. Our implementations show that the practical impact of dropping such interactive assumptions is minimal. Indeed, while for 128-bit security our scheme is marginally slower than Lindell’s, for 256-bit security it turns out to be better both in key generation and signing time. Moreover, in terms of communication cost, our implementation significantly reduces both the number of rounds and the transmitted bits without exception.

  10. SoK: General Purpose Compilers for Secure Multi-Party Computation 2019 MPC Oakland SOK marsella.github.io
    Marcella Hastings, Brett Hemenway, Daniel Noble, and Steve Zdancewic

    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows a group of mutually distrustful parties to compute a joint function on their inputs without revealing any information beyond the result of the computation. This type of computation is extremely powerful and has wide-ranging applications in academia, industry, and government. Protocols for secure computation have existed for decades, but only recently have general-purpose compilers for executing MPC on arbitrary functions been developed. These projects rapidly improved the state of the art, and began to make MPC accessible to non-expert users. However, the field is changing so rapidly that it is difficult even for experts to keep track of the varied capabilities of modern frameworks. In this work, we survey general-purpose compilers for secure multi-party computation. These tools provide high-level abstractions to describe arbitrary functions and execute secure computation protocols. We consider eleven systems: EMP-toolkit, Obliv-C, ObliVM, TinyGarble, SCALE-MAMBA (formerly SPDZ), Wysteria, Sharemind, PICCO, ABY, Frigate and CBMC-GC. We evaluate these systems on a range of criteria, including language expressibility, capabilities of the cryptographic back-end, and accessibility to developers. We advocate for improved documentation of MPC frameworks, standardization within the community, and make recommendations for future directions in compiler development. Installing and running these systems can be challenging, and for each system, we also provide a complete virtual environment (Docker container) with all the necessary dependencies to run the compiler and our example programs.

  11. Match Me if You Can: Matchmaking Encryption and its Applications 2019 ABE Crypto eprint.iacr.org
    Giuseppe Ateniese and Danilo Francati and David Nuñez and Daniele Venturi

    We introduce a new form of encryption that we name matchmaking encryption (ME). Using ME, sender S and receiver R (each with its own attributes) can both specify policies the other party must satisfy in order for the message to be revealed. The main security guarantee is that of privacy-preserving policy matching: During decryption nothing is leaked beyond the fact that a match occurred/did not occur. ME opens up new ways of secretly communicating, and enables several new applications where both participants can specify fine-grained access policies to encrypted data. For instance, in social matchmaking, S can encrypt a file containing his/her personal details and specify a policy so that the file can be decrypted only by his/her ideal partner. On the other end, a receiver R will be able to decrypt the file only if S corresponds to his/her ideal partner defined through a policy. On the theoretical side, we define security for ME, as well as provide generic frameworks for constructing ME from functional encryption. These constructions need to face the technical challenge of simultaneously checking the policies chosen by S and R, to avoid any leakage. On the practical side, we construct an efficient identity-based scheme for equality policies, with provable security in the random oracle model under the standard BDH assumption. We implement and evaluate our scheme and provide experimental evidence that our construction is practical. We also apply identity-based ME to a concrete use case, in particular for creating an anonymous bulletin board over a Tor network.

  12. Lattice-based Zero-Knowledge Proofs: New Techniques for Shorter and Faster Constructions and Applications 2019 Crypto Lattices ZK eprint.iacr.org
    Muhammed F. Esgin and Ron Steinfeld and Joseph K. Liu and Dongxi Liu

    We devise new techniques for design and analysis of efficient lattice-based zero-knowledge proofs (ZKP). First, we introduce one-shot proof techniques for non-linear polynomial relations of degree k≥2, where the protocol achieves a negligible soundness error in a single execution, and thus performs significantly better in both computation and communication compared to prior protocols requiring multiple repetitions. Such proofs with degree k≥2 have been crucial ingredients for important privacy-preserving protocols in the discrete logarithm setting, such as Bulletproofs (IEEE S&P ’18) and arithmetic circuit arguments (EUROCRYPT ’16). In contrast, one-shot proofs in lattice-based cryptography have previously only been shown for the linear case (k=1) and a very specific quadratic case (k=2), which are obtained as a special case of our technique.


    Moreover, we introduce two speedup techniques for lattice-based ZKPs: a CRT-packing technique supporting “inter-slot’’ operations, and “NTT-friendly’’ tools that permit the use of fully-splitting rings. The former technique comes at almost no cost to the proof length, and the latter one barely increases it, which can be compensated for by tweaking the rejection sampling parameters while still having faster computation overall.


    To illustrate the utility of our techniques, we show how to use them to build efficient relaxed proofs for important relations, namely proof of commitment to bits, one-out-of-many proof, range proof and set membership proof. Despite their relaxed nature, we further show how our proof systems can be used as building blocks for advanced cryptographic tools such as ring signatures.


    Our ring signature achieves a dramatic improvement in length over all the existing proposals from lattices at the same security level. The computational evaluation also shows that our construction is highly likely to outperform all the relevant works in running times. Being efficient in both aspects, our ring signature is particularly suitable for both small-scale and large-scale applications such as cryptocurrencies and e-voting systems. No trusted setup is required for any of our proposals.

  13. Efficient Noninteractive Certification of RSA Moduli and Beyond 2019 Asiacrypt ZK eprint.iacr.org
    Sharon Goldberg and Leonid Reyzin, Omar Sagga and Foteini Baldimtsi

    In many applications, it is important to verify that an RSA public key (N,e) specifies a permutation over the entire space ZN, in order to prevent attacks due to adversarially-generated public keys. We design and implement a simple and efficient noninteractive zero-knowledge protocol (in the random oracle model) for this task. Applications concerned about adversarial key generation can just append our proof to the RSA public key without any other modifications to existing code or cryptographic libraries. Users need only perform a one-time verification of the proof to ensure that raising to the power e is a permutation of the integers modulo N. For typical parameter settings, the proof consists of nine integers modulo N; generating the proof and verifying it both require about nine modular exponentiations.


    We extend our results beyond RSA keys and also provide efficient noninteractive zero-knowledge proofs for other properties of N, which can be used to certify that N is suitable for the Paillier cryptosystem, is a product of two primes, or is a Blum integer. As compared to the recent work of Auerbach and Poettering (PKC 2018), who provide two-message protocols for similar languages, our protocols are more efficient and do not require interaction, which enables a broader class of applications.

  14. Efficient Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Arguments with Standard Soundness: Construction and Applications 2019 Crypto Lattices ZK eprint.iacr.org
    Rupeng Yang and Man Ho Au and Zhenfei Zhang and Qiuliang Xu and Zuoxia Yu and William Whyte

    We provide new zero-knowledge argument of knowledge systems that work directly for a wide class of language, namely, ones involving the satisfiability of matrix-vector relations and integer relations commonly found in constructions of lattice-based cryptography. Prior to this work, practical arguments for lattice-based relations either have a constant soundness error ( 2/3 ), or consider a weaker form of soundness, namely, extraction only guarantees that the prover is in possession of a witness that “approximates” the actual witness. Our systems do not suffer from these limitations.


    The core of our new argument systems is an efficient zero-knowledge argument of knowledge of a solution to a system of linear equations, where variables of this solution satisfy a set of quadratic constraints. This argument enjoys standard soundness, a small soundness error ( 1/poly ), and a complexity linear in the size of the solution. Using our core argument system, we construct highly efficient argument systems for a variety of statements relevant to lattices, including linear equations with short solutions and matrix-vector relations with hidden matrices.


    Based on our argument systems, we present several new constructions of common privacy-preserving primitives in the standard lattice setting, including a group signature, a ring signature, an electronic cash system, and a range proof protocol. Our new constructions are one to three orders of magnitude more efficient than the state of the art (in standard lattice). This illustrates the efficiency and expressiveness of our argument system.

  15. Forkcipher: a New Primitive for Authenticated Encryption of Very Short Messages 2019 Asiacrypt AuthenticatedEncryption SymmetricKey eprint.iacr.org
    Elena Andreeva, Virginie Lallemand, Antoon Purnal, Reza Reyhanitabar, Arnab Roy and Damian Vizar

    Highly efficient encryption and authentication of short messages is an essential requirement for enabling security in constrained scenarios such as the CAN FD in automotive systems (max. message size 64 bytes), massive IoT, critical communication domains of 5G, and Narrowband IoT, to mention a few. In addition, one of the NIST lightweight cryptography project requirements is that AEAD schemes shall be “optimized to be efficient for short messages (e.g., as short as 8 bytes)”.


    In this work we introduce and formalize a novel primitive in symmetric cryptography called a forkcipher. A forkcipher is a keyed function expanding a fixed-length input to a fixed-length output. We define its security as indistinguishability under chosen ciphertext attack. We give a generic construction validation via the new iterate-fork-iterate design paradigm.


    We then propose ForkSkinny as a concrete forkcipher instance with a public tweak and based on SKINNY: a tweakable lightweight block cipher constructed using the TWEAKEY framework. We conduct extensive cryptanalysis of ForkSkinny against classical and structure-specific attacks.


    We demonstrate the applicability of forkciphers by designing three new provably-secure, nonce-based AEAD modes which offer performance and security tradeoffs and are optimized for efficiency of very short messages. Considering a reference block size of 16 bytes, and ignoring possible hardware optimizations, our new AEAD schemes beat the best SKINNY-based AEAD modes. More generally, we show forkciphers are suited for lightweight applications dealing with predominantly short messages, while at the same time allowing handling arbitrary messages sizes.


    Furthermore, our hardware implementation results show that when we exploit the inherent parallelism of ForkSkinny we achieve the best performance when directly compared with the most efficient mode instantiated with the SKINNY block cipher.

  16. Quisquis: A New Design for Anonymous Cryptocurrencies 2019 Asiacrypt Blockchains Privacy eprint.iacr.org
    Prastudy Fauzi, Sarah Meiklejohn, Rebekah Mercer and Claudio Orlandi

    Despite their usage of pseudonyms rather than persistent identifiers, most existing cryptocurrencies do not provide users with any meaningful levels of privacy. This has prompted the creation of privacy-enhanced cryptocurrencies such as Monero and Zcash, which are specifically designed to counteract the tracking analysis possible in currencies like Bitcoin. These cryptocurrencies, however, also suffer from some drawbacks: in both Monero and Zcash, the set of potential unspent coins is always growing, which means users cannot store a concise representation of the blockchain. Additionally, Zcash requires a common reference string and the fact that addresses are reused multiple times in Monero has led to attacks to its anonymity.


    In this paper we propose a new design for anonymous cryptocurrencies, Quisquis, that achieves provably secure notions of anonymity. Quisquis stores a relatively small amount of data, does not require trusted setup, and in Quisquis each address appears on the blockchain at most twice: once when it is generated as output of a transaction, and once when it is spent as input to a transaction. Our result is achieved by combining a DDH-based tool (that we call updatable keys) with efficient zero-knowledge arguments.

  17. Fast Authentication from Aggregate Signatures with Improved Security 2019 Attacks Cryptanalysis FinancialCryptography Signatures eprint.iacr.org
    Muslum Ozgur Ozmen, Rouzbeh Behnia and Attila A. Yavuz

    An attempt to derive signer-efficient digital signatures from aggregate signatures was made in a signature scheme referred to as Structure-free Compact Rapid Authentication (SCRA) (IEEE TIFS 2017). In this paper, we first mount a practical universal forgery attack against the NTRU instantiation of SCRA by observing only 8161 signatures. Second, we propose a new signature scheme (FAAS), which transforms any single-signer aggregate signature scheme into a signer-efficient scheme. We show two efficient instantiations of FAAS, namely, FAAS-NTRU and FAAS-RSA, both of which achieve high computational efficiency. Our experiments confirmed that FAAS schemes achieve up to 100x faster signature generation compared to their underlying schemes. Moreover, FAAS schemes eliminate some of the costly operations such as Gaussian sampling, rejection sampling, and exponentiation at the signature generation that are shown to be susceptible to side-channel attacks. This enables FAAS schemes to enhance the security and efficiency of their underlying schemes. Finally, we prove that FAAS schemes are secure (in random oracle model), and open-source both our attack and FAAS implementations for public testing purposes.

  18. One-Time Programs made Practical 2019 FinancialCryptography IntelSGX arxiv.org
    Lianying Zhao, Joseph I. Choi, Didem Demirag, Kevin R. B. Butler, Mohammad Mannan, Erman Ayday, and Jeremy Clark

    A one-time program (OTP) works as follows: Alice provides Bob with the implementation of some function. Bob can have the function evaluated exclusively on a single input of his choosing. Once executed, the program will fail to evaluate on any other input. State-of-the-art one-time programs have remained theoretical, requiring custom hardware that is cost-ineffective/unavailable, or confined to adhoc/unrealistic assumptions. To bridge this gap, we explore how the Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) of modern CPUs can realize the OTP functionality. Specifically, we build two flavours of such a system: in the first, the TEE directly enforces the one-timeness of the program; in the second, the program is represented with a garbled circuit and the TEE ensures Bob’s input can only be wired into the circuit once, equivalent to a smaller cryptographic primitive called one-time memory. These have different performance profiles: the first is best when Alice’s input is small and Bob’s is large, and the second for the converse.

  19. The Proof is in the Pudding: Proofs of Work for Solving Discrete Logarithms 2019 Blockchains DLP FinancialCryptography ProofOfWork eprint.iacr.org
    Marcella Hastings, Nadia Heninger, and Eric Wustrow

    We propose a proof of work protocol that computes the discrete logarithm of an element in a cyclic group. Individual provers generating proofs of work perform a distributed version of the Pollard rho algorithm. Such a protocol could capture the computational power expended to construct proof-of-work-based blockchains for a more useful purpose, as well as incentivize advances in hardware, software, or algorithms for an important cryptographic problem. We describe our proposed construction and elaborate on challenges and potential trade-offs that arise in designing a practical proof of work.

  20. From Collisions to Chosen-Prefix Collisions - Application to Full SHA-1 2019 Attacks Cryptanalysis Eurocrypt Hashing eprint.iacr.org
    Gaëtan Leurent and Thomas Peyrin

    A chosen-prefix collision attack is a stronger variant of a collision attack, where an arbitrary pair of challenge prefixes are turned into a collision. Chosen-prefix collisions are usually significantly harder to produce than (identical-prefix) collisions, but the practical impact of such an attack is much larger. While many cryptographic constructions rely on collision-resistance for their security proofs, collision attacks are hard to turn into a break of concrete protocols, because the adversary has limited control over the colliding messages. On the other hand, chosen-prefix collisions have been shown to break certificates (by creating a rogue CA) and many internet protocols (TLS, SSH, IPsec).


    In this article, we propose new techniques to turn collision attacks into chosen-prefix collision attacks. Our strategy is composed of two phases: first, a birthday search that aims at taking the random chaining variable difference (due to the chosen-prefix model) to a set of pre-defined target differences. Then, using a multi-block approach, carefully analysing the clustering effect, we map this new chaining variable difference to a colliding pair of states using techniques developed for collision attacks.


    We apply those techniques to MD5 and SHA1, and obtain improved attacks. In particular, we have a chosen-prefix collision attack against SHA1 with complexity between 266.9 and 269.4 (depending on assumptions about the cost of finding near-collision blocks), while the best-known attack has complexity 277.1. This is within a small factor of the complexity of the classical collision attack on SHA1 (estimated as 264.7). This represents yet another warning that industries and users have to move away from using SHA1 as soon as possible.

  21. Covert Security with Public Verifiability: Faster, Leaner, and Simpler 2019 Eurocrypt VerifiableComputation eprint.iacr.org
    Cheng Hong, Jonathan Katz, Vladimir Kolesnikov, Wen-jie Lu, and Xiao Wang

    The notion of covert security for secure two-party computation serves as a compromise between the traditional semi-honest and malicious security definitions. Roughly, covert security ensures that cheating behavior is detected by the honest party with reasonable probability. It provides more realistic guarantees than semi-honest security with significantly less overhead than is required by malicious security.


    The rationale for covert security is that it dissuades cheating by parties that care about their reputation and do not want to risk being caught. Further thought, however, shows that a much stronger disincentive is obtained if the honest party can generate a publicly verifiable certificate of misbehavior when cheating is detected. While the corresponding notion of publicly verifiable covert (PVC) security has been explored, existing PVC protocols are complex and less efficient than the best-known covert protocols, and have impractically large certificates.


    We propose a novel PVC protocol that significantly improves on prior work. Our protocol uses only ``off-the-shelf’’ primitives (in particular, it avoids signed oblivious transfer) and, for deterrence factor 1/2, has only 20-40% overhead (depending on the circuit size and network bandwidth) compared to state-of-the-art semi-honest protocols. Our protocol also has, for the first time, constant-size certificates of cheating (e.g., 354 bytes long at the 128-bit security level).


    As our protocol offers strong security guarantees with low overhead, we suggest that it is the best choice for many practical applications of secure two-party computation.

  22. Efficient Circuit-based PSI with Linear Communication 2019 Eurocrypt PSI eprint.iacr.org
    Benny Pinkas and Thomas Schneider, Oleksandr Tkachenko, and Avishay Yanai

    We present a new protocol for computing a circuit which implements the private set intersection functionality (PSI). Using circuits for this task is advantageous over the usage of specific protocols for PSI, since many applications of PSI do not need to compute the intersection itself but rather functions based on the items in the intersection. Our protocol is the first circuit-based PSI protocol to achieve linear communication complexity. It is also concretely more efficient than all previous circuit-based PSI protocols. For example, for sets of size 2^20 it improves the communication of the recent work of Pinkas et al. (EUROCRYPT’18) by more than 10 times, and improves the run time by a factor of 2.8x in the LAN setting, and by a factor of 5.8x in the WAN setting. Our protocol is based on the usage of a protocol for computing oblivious programmable pseudo-random functions (OPPRF), and more specifically on our technique to amortize the cost of batching together multiple invocations of OPPRF.

  23. Building an Efficient Lattice Gadget Toolkit: Subgaussian Sampling and More 2019 Eurocrypt LWE eprint.iacr.org
    Nicholas Genise, Daniele Micciancio, and Yuriy Polyakov

    Many advanced lattice cryptography applications require efficient algorithms for inverting the so-called “gadget” matrices, which are used to formally describe a digit decomposition problem that produces an output with specific (statistical) properties. The common gadget inversion problems are the classical (often binary) digit decomposition, subgaussian decomposition, Learning with Errors (LWE) decoding, and discrete Gaussian sampling. In this work, we build and implement an efficient lattice gadget toolkit that provides a general treatment of gadget matrices and algorithms for their inversion/sampling. The main contribution of our work is a set of new gadget matrices and algorithms for efficient subgaussian sampling that have a number of major theoretical and practical advantages over previously known algorithms. Another contribution deals with efficient algorithms for LWE decoding and discrete Gaussian sampling in the Residue Number System (RNS) representation.


    We implement the gadget toolkit in PALISADE and evaluate the performance of our algorithms both in terms of runtime and noise growth. We illustrate the improvements due to our algorithms by implementing a concrete complex application, key-policy attribute-based encryption (KP-ABE), which was previously considered impractical for CPU systems (except for a very small number of attributes). Our runtime improvements for the main bottleneck operation based on subgaussian sampling range from 18x (for 2 attributes) to 289x (for 16 attributes; the maximum number supported by a previous implementation). Our results are applicable to a wide range of other advanced applications in lattice cryptography, such as GSW-based homomorphic encryption schemes, leveled fully homomorphic signatures, key-hiding PRFs and other forms of ABE, some program obfuscation constructions, and more.

  24. Synchronous Byzantine Agreement with Expected O(1) Rounds, Expected O(n2) Communication, and Optimal Resilience 2019 FinancialCryptography eprint.iacr.org
    Ittai Abraham, Srinivas Devadas, Danny Dolev, Kartik Nayak, and Ling Ren

    We present new protocols for Byzantine agreement in the synchronous and authenticated setting, tolerating the optimal number of f faults among n=2f+1 parties. Our protocols achieve an expected O(1) round complexity and an expected O(n2) communication complexity. The exact round complexity in expectation is 10 for a static adversary and 16 for a strongly rushing adaptive adversary. For comparison, previous protocols in the same setting require expected 29 rounds.

  25. Universally Verifiable MPC and IRV Ballot Counting 2019 FinancialCryptography MPC eprint.iacr.org
    Chris Culnane, Olivier Pereira, Kim Ramchen, and Vanessa Teague

    We present a very simple universally verifiable MPC protocol. The first component is a threshold somewhat homomorphic cryptosystem that permits an arbitrary number of additions (in the source group), followed by a single multiplication, followed by an arbitrary number of additions in the target group. The second component is a black-box construction of universally verifiable distributed encryption switching between any public key encryption schemes supporting shared setup and key generation phases, as long as the schemes satisfy some natural additive-homomorphic properties. This allows us to switch back from the target group to the source group, and hence perform an arbitrary number of multiplications. The key generation algorithm of our prototypical cryptosystem, which is based upon concurrent verifiable secret sharing, permits robust re-construction of powers of a shared secret. We demonstrate the scalability of distribution switching as a viable approach to secure vote tallying by implementing a private verifiable form of Instant Runoff Voting on real Australian election data comprising 40,000 votes.