1. ROYALE: A Framework for Universally Composable Card Games with Financial Rewards and Penalties Enforcement 2019 Blockchains FinancialCryptography UC
    Bernardo David, Rafael Dowsley, and Mario Larangeira
    [View PDF on eprint.iacr.org]
    [Show BibTex Citation]

    @misc{cryptoeprint:2018:157,
    author = {Bernardo David and Rafael Dowsley and Mario Larangeira},
    title = {ROYALE: A Framework for Universally Composable Card Games with Financial Rewards and Penalties Enforcement},
    howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/157},
    year = {2018},
    note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/157}},
    }

While many tailor made card game protocols are known, the vast majority of those suffer from three main issues: lack of mechanisms for distributing financial rewards and punishing cheaters, lack of composability guarantees and little flexibility, focusing on the specific game of poker. Even though folklore holds that poker protocols can be used to play any card game, this conjecture remains unproven and, in fact, does not hold for a number of protocols (including recent results). We both tackle the problem of constructing protocols for general card games and initiate a treatment of such protocols in the Universal Composability (UC) framework, introducing an ideal functionality that captures general card games constructed from a set of core card operations. Based on this formalism, we introduce Royale, the first UC-secure general card games which supports financial rewards/penalties enforcement. We remark that Royale also yields the first UC-secure poker protocol. Interestingly, Royale performs better than most previous works (that do not have composability guarantees), which we highlight through a detailed concrete complexity analysis and benchmarks from a prototype implementation.

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