1. Stacco: Differentially Analyzing Side-Channel Traces for Detecting SSL/TLS Vulnerabilities in Secure Enclaves 2017 Attacks CCS IntelSGX SideChannels TLS
    Yuan Xiao, Mengyuan Li, Sanchuan Chen, and Yinqian Zhang
    [View PDF on acmccs.github.io]
    [Show BibTex Citation]

    author = {Xiao, Yuan and Li, Mengyuan and Chen, Sanchuan and Zhang, Yinqian},
    title = {STACCO: Differentially Analyzing Side-Channel Traces for Detecting SSL/TLS Vulnerabilities in Secure Enclaves},
    year = {2017},
    isbn = {9781450349468},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3134016},
    doi = {10.1145/3133956.3134016},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
    pages = {859–874},
    numpages = {16},
    keywords = {sgx, oracle attacks, differential analysis, control-flow inference attacks, ssl/tls, side-channel},
    location = {Dallas, Texas, USA},
    series = {CCS ’17}

Intel Software Guard Extension (SGX) offers software applications a shielded execution environment, dubbed enclave, to protect their confidentiality and integrity from malicious operating systems. As processors with this extended feature become commercially available, many new software applications are developed to enrich to the SGX-enabled ecosystem. One important primitive for these applications is a secure communication channel between the enclave and a remote trusted party. The SSL/TLS protocol, which is the de facto standard for protecting transport-layer network communications, has been broadly regarded a natural choice for such purposes. However, in this paper, we show that the marriage between SGX and SSL may not be smooth sailing.

Particularly, we consider a category of side-channel attacks against SSL/TLS implementations in secure enclaves, which we call the control-flow inference attacks. In these attacks, the malicious operating system kernel may perform a powerful man-in-the-kernel attack to collect execution traces of the enclave programs at the page level, the cacheline level, or the branch level, while positioning itself in the middle of the two communicating parties. At the center of our work is a differential analysis framework, dubbed Stacco, to dynamically analyze the SSL/TLS implementations and detect vulnerabilities-discernible execution traces-that can be exploited as decryption oracles. Surprisingly, in spite of the prevailing constant-time programming paradigm adopted by many cryptographic libraries, we found exploitable vulnerabilities in the latest versions of all the SSL/TLS libraries we have examined.

To validate the detected vulnerabilities, we developed a man-in-the-kernel adversary to demonstrate Bleichenbacher attacks against the latest OpenSSL library running in the SGX enclave (with the help of Graphene) and completely broke the PreMasterSecret encrypted by a 4096-bit RSA public key with only 57286 queries. We also conducted CBC padding oracle attacks against the latest GnuTLS running in Graphene-SGX and an open-source SGX implementation of mbedTLS (i.e., mbedTLS-SGX) that runs directly inside the enclave, and showed that it only needs 48388 and 25717 queries, respectively, to break one block of AES ciphertext. Empirical evaluation suggests these man-in-the-kernel attacks can be completed within 1 or 2 hours. Our results reveal the insufficient understanding of side-channel security in SGX settings, and our study will provoke discussions on the secure implementation and adoption of SSL/TLS in secure enclaves.