1. DIZK: A Distributed Zero Knowledge Proof System 2018 Blockchains Usenix ZK
    Howard Wu, Wenting Zheng, Alessandro Chiesa, Raluca Ada Popa, and Ion Stoica
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    [Show BibTex Citation]

    @inproceedings {217484,
    author = {Howard Wu and Wenting Zheng and Alessandro Chiesa and Raluca Ada Popa and Ion Stoica},
    title = {{DIZK}: A Distributed Zero Knowledge Proof System},
    booktitle = {27th {USENIX} Security Symposium ({USENIX} Security 18)},
    year = {2018},
    isbn = {978-1-939133-04-5},
    address = {Baltimore, MD},
    pages = {675--692},
    url = {https://www.usenix.org/conference/usenixsecurity18/presentation/wu},
    publisher = {{USENIX} Association},
    month = aug,

Recently there has been much academic and industrial interest in practical implementations of zero knowledge proofs. These techniques allow a party to prove to another party that a given statement is true without revealing any additional information. In a Bitcoin-like system, this allows a payer to prove validity of a payment without disclosing the payment’s details. Unfortunately, the existing systems for generating such proofs are very expensive, especially in terms of memory overhead. Worse yet, these systems are “monolithic”, so they are limited by the memory resources of a single machine. This severely limits their practical applicability. We describe DIZK, a system that distributes the generation of a zero knowledge proof across machines in a compute cluster. Using a set of new techniques, we show that DIZK scales to computations of up to billions of logical gates (100× larger than prior art) at a cost of 10μs per gate (100× faster than prior art). We then use DIZK to study various security applications.