1. Aurora: Transparent Succinct Arguments for R1CS 2019 Eurocrypt zkSNARK
    Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Michael Riabzev, Nicholas Spooner, Madars Virza, and Nicholas P. Ward
    [View PDF on eprint.iacr.org]
    [Show BibTex Citation]

    @misc{cryptoeprint:2018:828,
    author = {Eli Ben-Sasson and Alessandro Chiesa and Michael Riabzev and Nicholas Spooner and Madars Virza and Nicholas P. Ward},
    title = {Aurora: Transparent Succinct Arguments for R1CS},
    howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/828},
    year = {2018},
    note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/828}},
    }

We design, implement, and evaluate a zkSNARK for Rank-1 Constraint Satisfaction (R1CS), a widely-deployed NP-complete language that is undergoing standardization. Our construction uses a transparent setup, is plausibly post-quantum secure, and uses lightweight cryptography. A proof attesting to the satisfiability of n constraints has size O(log2n); it can be produced with O(nlogn) field operations and verified with O(n). At 128 bits of security, proofs are less than 130kB even for several million constraints, more than 20x shorter than prior zkSNARK with similar features.

A key ingredient of our construction is a new Interactive Oracle Proof (IOP) for solving a univariate analogue of the classical sumcheck problem [LFKN92], originally studied for multivariate polynomials. Our protocol verifies the sum of entries of a Reed–Solomon codeword over any subgroup of a field.

We also provide libiop, an open-source library for writing IOP-based arguments, in which a toolchain of transformations enables programmers to write new arguments by writing simple IOP sub-components. We have used this library to specify our construction and prior ones.

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