1. Highly Efficient Key Exchange Protocols with Optimal Tightness 2019 Crypto KeyExchange eprint.iacr.org
    Katriel Cohn-Gordon and Cas Cremers and Kristian Gjøsteen and Håkon Jacobsen and Tibor Jager

    In this paper we give nearly tight reductions for modern implicitly authenticated Diffie-Hellman protocols in the style of the Signal and Noise protocols, which are extremely simple and efficient. Unlike previous approaches, the combination of nearly tight proofs and efficient protocols enables the first real-world instantiations for which the parameters can be chosen in a theoretically sound manner, i.e., according to the bounds of the reductions. Specifically, our reductions have a security loss which is only linear in the number of users μ and constant in the number of sessions per user ℓ. This is much better than most other key exchange proofs which are typically quadratic in the product μℓ. Combined with the simplicity of our protocols, this implies that our protocols are more efficient than the state of the art when soundly instantiated.


    We also prove that our security proofs are optimal: a linear loss in the number of users is unavoidable for our protocols for a large and natural class of reductions.

  2. NANOPI: Extreme-Scale Actively-Secure Multi-Party Computation 2018 CCS MPC homes.sice.indiana.edu
    Ruiyu Zhu, Darion Cassel, Amr Sabry, and Yan Huang

    Existing actively-secure MPC protocols require either linear rounds or linear space. Due to this fundamental space-round dilemma, no existing MPC protocols is able to run large-scale computations without significantly sacrificing performance. To mitigate this issue, we developed nanoPI, which is practically efficient in terms of both time and space. Our protocol is based on WRK but introduces interesting and necessary modifications to address several important programmatic and cryptographic challenges. A technique that may be of independent interest (in transforming other computation-oriented cryptographic protocols) is a staged execution model, which we formally define and realize using a combination of lightweight static and dynamic program instrumentation. Our techniques are integrated in nanoPI, an open-source tool for efficiently building and running actively-secure extreme-scale MPC applications. We demonstrate the unprecedented scalability and performance of nanoPI by building and running a suit of bench- mark applications, including an actively-secure four-party logistical regression (involving 4.7 billion ANDs and 8.9 billion XORs) which finished in less than 28 hours on four small-memory machines.

  3. Ouroboros Genesis: Composable Proof-of-Stake Blockchains with Dynamic Availability 2018 Blockchains CCS eprint.iacr.org
    Christian Badertscher, Peter Gazi, Aggelos Kiayias, Alexander Russell, and Vassilis Zikas

    Proof-of-stake-based (in short, PoS-based) blockchains aim to overcome scalability, effi- ciency, and composability limitations of the proof-of-work paradigm, which underlies the security of several mainstream cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin. Our work puts forth the first (global universally) composable (GUC) treatment of PoS-based blockchains in a setting that captures—for the first time in GUC—arbitrary numbers of parties that may not be fully operational, e.g., due to network problems, reboots, or updates of their OS that affect all or just some of their local resources including their network interface and clock. This setting, which we refer to as dynamic availability, naturally captures decentralized environments within which real-world deployed blockchain protocols are assumed to operate. We observe that none of the existing PoS-based blockchain protocols can realize the ledger functionality under dynamic availability in the same way that bitcoin does (using only the information available in the genesis block). To address this we propose a new PoS-based protocol, “Ouroboros Genesis”, that adapts one of the latest cryptographically-secure PoS-based blockchain protocols with a novel chain selection rule. The rule enables new or offline parties to safely (re-)join and bootstrap their blockchain from the genesis block without any trusted advice—such as checkpoints—or assumptions regarding past availability. We say that such a blockchain protocol can “bootstrap from genesis.” We prove the GUC security of Ouroboros Genesis against a fully adaptive adversary controlling less than half of the total stake. Our model allows adversarial scheduling of messages in a network with delays and captures the dynamic availability of participants in the worst case. Importantly, our protocol is effectively independent of both the maximum network delay and the minimum level of availability— both of which are run-time parameters. Proving the security of our construction against an adaptive adversary requires a novel martingale technique that may be of independent interest in the analysis of blockchain protocols.

  4. Lattice-Based zk-SNARKs from Square Span Programs 2018 CCS zkSNARK eprint.iacr.org
    Rosario Gennaro, Michele Minelli, Anca Nitulescu and Michele Orrù

    Zero-knowledge SNARKs (zk-SNARKs) are non-interactive proof systems with short (i.e., independent of the size of the witness) and efficiently verifiable proofs. They elegantly resolve the juxtaposition of individual privacy and public trust, by providing an efficient way of demonstrating knowledge of secret information without actually revealing it. To this day, zk-SNARKs are widely deployed all over the planet and are used to keep alive a system worth billion of euros, namely the cryptocurrency Zcash. However, all current SNARKs implementations rely on so-called pre-quantum assumptions and, for this reason, are not expected to withstand cryptanalitic efforts over the next few decades.


    In this work, we introduce a new zk-SNARK that can be instantiated from lattice-based assumptions, and which is thus believed to be post-quantum secure. We provide a generalization in the spirit of Gennaro et al. (Eurocrypt’13) to the SNARK of Danezis et al. (Asiacrypt’14) that is based on Square Span Programs (SSP) and relies on weaker computational assumptions. We focus on designated-verifier proofs and propose a protocol in which a proof consists of just 5 LWE encodings. We provide a concrete choice of parameters, showing that our construction is practically instantiable.

  5. Secure Outsourced Matrix Computation and Application to Neural Networks 2018 CCS FHE MachineLearning eprint.iacr.org
    Xiaoqian Jiang, Miran Kim, Kristin Lauter, and Yongsoo Song

    Homomorphic Encryption (HE) is a powerful cryptographic primitive to address privacy and security issues in outsourcing computation on sensitive data to an untrusted computation environment. Comparing to secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC), HE has advantages in supporting non-interactive operations and saving on communication costs. However, it has not come up with an optimal solution for modern learning frameworks, partially due to a lack of efficient matrix computation mechanisms.


    In this work, we present a practical solution to encrypt a matrix homomorphically and perform arithmetic operations on encrypted matrices. Our solution includes a novel matrix encoding method and an efficient evaluation strategy for basic matrix operations such as addition, multiplication, and transposition. We also explain how to encrypt more than one matrix in a single ciphertext, yielding better amortized performance.


    Our solution is generic in the sense that it can be applied to most of the existing HE schemes. It also achieves reasonable performance for practical use; for example, our implementation takes 0.6 seconds to multiply two encrypted square matrices of order 64 and 0.09 seconds to transpose a square matrix of order 64.


    Our secure matrix computation mechanism has a wide applicability to our new framework E2DM, which stands for encrypted data and encrypted model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that supports secure evaluation of the prediction phase based on both encrypted data and encrypted model, whereas previous work only supported applying a plain model to encrypted data. As a benchmark, we report an experimental result to classify handwritten images using convolutional neural networks (CNN). Our implementation on the MNIST dataset takes 1.69 seconds to compute ten likelihoods of 64 input images simultaneously, yielding an amortized rate of 26 milliseconds per image.

  6. Scalable Zero Knowledge with no Trusted Setup 2019 Crypto ZK eprint.iacr.org
    Eli Ben-Sasson and Iddo Bentov and Yinon Horesh and Michael Riabzev

    Human dignity demands that personal information, like medical and forensic data, be hidden from the public. But veils of secrecy designed to preserve privacy may also be abused to cover up lies and deceit by parties entrusted with Data, unjustly harming citizens and eroding trust in central institutions.


    Zero knowledge (ZK) proof systems are an ingenious cryptographic solution to the tension between the ideals of personal privacy and institutional integrity, enforcing the latter in a way that does not compromise the former. Public trust demands transparency from ZK systems, meaning they be set up with no reliance on any trusted party, and have no trapdoors that could be exploited by powerful parties to bear false witness. For ZK systems to be used with Big Data, it is imperative that the public verification process scale sublinearly in data size. Transparent ZK proofs that can be verified exponentially faster than data size were first described in the 1990s but early constructions were impractical, and no ZK system realized thus far in code (including that used by crypto-currencies like Zcash) has achieved both transparency and exponential verification speedup, simultaneously, for general computations.


    Here we report the first realization of a transparent ZK system (ZK-STARK) in which verification scales exponentially faster than database size, and moreover, this exponential speedup in verification is observed concretely for meaningful and sequential computations, described next. Our system uses several recent advances on interactive oracle proofs (IOP), such as a “fast” (linear time) IOP system for error correcting codes.


    Our proof-of-concept system allows the Police to prove to the public that the DNA profile of a Presidential Candidate does not appear in the forensic DNA profile database maintained by the Police. The proof, which is generated by the Police, relies on no external trusted party, and reveals no further information about the contents of the database, nor about the candidate’s profile; in particular, no DNA information is disclosed to any party outside the Police. The proof is shorter than the size of the DNA database, and verified faster than the time needed to examine that database naively.

  7. Practically Efficient Secure Distributed Exponentiation Without Bit-Decomposition 2018 FinancialCryptography MPC Privacy link.springer.com
    Abdelrahaman Aly, Aysajan Abidin, and Svetla Nikova

    Bit-decomposition is a powerful tool which can be used to design constant round protocols for bit-oriented multiparty computation (MPC) problems, such as comparison and Hamming weight computation. However, protocols that involve bit-decomposition are expensive in terms of performance. In this paper, we introduce a set of protocols for distributed exponentiation without bit-decomposition. We improve upon the current state-of-the-art by Ning and Xu [1, 2], in terms of round and multiplicative complexity. We consider different cases where the inputs are either private or public and present privacy-preserving protocols for each case. Our protocols offer perfect security against passive and active adversaries and have constant multiplicative and round complexity, for any fixed number of parties. Furthermore, we showcase how these primitives can be used, for instance, to perform secure distributed decryption for some public key schemes, that are based on modular exponentiation.

  8. Labeled PSI from Fully Homomorphic Encryption with Malicious Security 2018 CCS FHE PSI eprint.iacr.org
    Hao Chen, Zhicong Huang, Kim Laine and Peter Rindal

    Private Set Intersection (PSI) allows two parties, the sender and the receiver, to compute the intersection of their private sets without revealing extra information to each other. We are interested in the {\it unbalanced} PSI setting, where (1) the receiver’s set is significantly smaller than the sender’s, and (2) the receiver (with the smaller set) has a low-power device. Also, in a {\it Labeled PSI} setting, the sender holds a label per each item in its set, and the receiver obtains the labels from the items in the intersection. We build upon the unbalanced PSI protocol of Chen, Laine, and Rindal (CCS 2017) in several ways: we add efficient support for arbitrary length items, we construct and implement an unbalanced Labeled PSI protocol with small communication complexity, and also strengthen the security model using Oblivious Pseudo-Random Function (OPRF) in a pre-processing phase. Our protocols outperform previous ones: for an intersection of 220 and 512 size sets of arbitrary length items our protocol has a total online running time of just 1 second (single thread), and a total communication cost of 4 MB. For a larger example, an intersection of 228 and 1024 size sets of arbitrary length items has an online running time of 12 seconds (multi-threaded), with less than 18 MB of total communication.

  9. SWiM: Secure Wildcard Pattern Matching From OT Extension 2018 FinancialCryptography OT eprint.iacr.org
    Vladimir Kolesnikov and Mike Rosulek and Ni Trieu

    Suppose a server holds a long text string and a receiver holds a short pattern string. Secure pattern matching allows the receiver to learn the locations in the long text where the pattern appears, while leaking nothing else to either party besides the length of their inputs. In this work we consider secure wildcard pattern matching WPM, where the receiver’s pattern is allowed to contain wildcards that match to any character.


    We present SWiM, a simple and fast protocol for WPM that is heavily based on oblivious transfer (OT) extension. As such, the protocol requires only a small constant number of public-key operations and otherwise uses only very fast symmetric-key primitives. SWiM is secure against semi-honest adversaries. We implemented a prototype of our protocol to demonstrate its practicality. We can perform WPM on a DNA text (4-character alphabet) of length 10^5
    and pattern of length 10^3 in just over 2 seconds, which is over two orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art scheme of Baron et al. (SCN 2012).

  10. New Constructions for Forward and Backward Private Symmetric Searchable Encryption 2018 CCS SearchableEncryption SymmetricKey obj.umiacs.umd.edu
    Javad Ghareh Chamani, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Charalampos Papamanthou, and Rasool Jalili

    We study the problem of dynamic symmetric searchable encryption. In that setting, it is crucial to minimize the information revealed to the server as a result of update operations (insertions and deletions). Two relevant privacy properties have been defined in that context: forward and backward privacy. The first makes it hard for the server to link an update operation with previous queries and has been extensively studied in the literature. The second limits what the server can learn about entries that were deleted from the database, from queries that happen after the deletion. Backward privacy was formally studied only recently (Bost et al., CCS 2017) in a work that introduced a formal definition with three variable types of leakage (Type-I to Type-III ordered from most to least secure), as well as the only existing schemes that satisfy this property. In this work, we introduce three novel constructions that improve previous results in multiple ways. The first scheme achieves Type-II backward privacy and our experimental evaluation shows it has 145-253X faster search computation times than previous constructions with the same leakage. Surprisingly, it is faster even than schemes with Type-III leakage which makes it the most efficient implementation of a forward and backward private scheme so far. The second one has search time that is asymptotically within a polylogarithmic multiplicative factor of the theoretical optimal (i.e., the result size of a search), and it achieves the strongest level of backward privacy (Type-I). All previous Type-I constructions require time that is at least linear in the total number of updates for the requested keywords, even the (arbitrarily many) previously deleted ones. Our final scheme improves upon the second one by reducing the number of roundtrips for a search at the cost of extra leakage (Type-III).

  11. Faster Unbalanced Private Set Intersection 2018 FinancialCryptography Privacy PSI eprint.iacr.org
    Amanda Cristina Davi Resende and Diego de Freitas Aranha

    Protocols for Private Set Intersection (PSI) are important cryptographic primitives that perform joint operations on datasets in a privacy-preserving way. They allow two parties to compute the intersection of their private sets without revealing any additional information beyond the intersection itself. Unfortunately, PSI implementations in the literature do not usually employ the best possible cryptographic implementation techniques. This results in protocols presenting computational and communication complexities that are prohibitive, particularly in the case when one of the participants is a low-powered device and there are bandwidth restrictions. This paper builds on modern cryptographic engineering techniques and proposes optimizations for a promising one-way PSI protocol based on public-key cryptography. For the case when one of the parties holds a set much smaller than the other (a realistic assumption in many scenarios) we show that our improvements and optimizations yield a protocol that outperforms the communication complexity and the run time of previous proposals by around one thousand times.

  12. Libra: Succinct Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Optimal Prover Computation 2019 Crypto ZK eprint.iacr.org
    Tiancheng Xie and Jiaheng Zhang and Yupeng Zhang and Charalampos Papamanthou and Dawn Song

    We present Libra, the first zero-knowledge proof system that has both optimal prover time and succinct proof size/verification time. In particular, if C is the size of the circuit being proved (i) the prover time is O(C) irrespective of the circuit type; (ii) the proof size and verification time are both O(d log C) for d-depth log-space uniform circuits (such as RAM programs). In addition Libra features an one-time trusted setup that depends only on the size of the input to the circuit and not on the circuit logic. Underlying Libra is a new linear-time algorithm for the prover of the interactive proof protocol by Goldwasser, Kalai and Rothblum (also known as GKR protocol), as well as an efficient approach to turn the GKR protocol to zero-knowledge using small masking polynomials. Not only does Libra have excellent asymptotics, but it is also efficient in practice. For example, our implementation shows that it takes 200 seconds to generate a proof for constructing a SHA2-based Merkle tree root on 256 leaves, outperforming all existing zero-knowledge proof systems. Proof size and verification time of Libra are also competitive.

  13. ALCHEMY: A Language and Compiler for Homomorphic Encryption Made easY 2018 CCS FHE web.eecs.umich.edu
    Eric Crockett, Chris Jason Peikert, and Chad Sharp

    Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is a cryptographic “holy grail” that allows a worker to perform arbitrary computations on client-encrypted data, without learning anything about the data itself. Since the first plausible construction in 2009, a variety of FHE implementations have been given and used for particular applications of interest. Unfortunately, using FHE is currently very complicated, and a great deal of expertise is required to properly implement nontrivial homomorphic computations. This work introduces ALCHEMY, a modular and extensible system that simplifies and accelerates the use of FHE. ALCHEMY compiles “in-the-clear” computations on plaintexts, written in a modular domain-specific language~(DSL), into corresponding homomorphic computations on ciphertexts—with no special knowledge of FHE required of the programmer. The compiler automatically chooses (most of the) parameters by statically inferring ciphertext noise rates, generates keys and “key-switching hints,” schedules appropriate ciphertext “maintenance” operations, and more. In addition, its components can be combined modularly to provide other useful functionality, such logging the empirical noise rates of ciphertexts throughout a computation, without requiring any changes to the original DSL code. As a testbed application, we demonstrate fast homomorphic evaluation of a pseudorandom function~(PRF) based on Ring-LWR, whose entire implementation is only a few dozen lines of simple DSL code. For a single (non-batched) evaluation, our unoptimized implementation takes only about 10 seconds on a commodity PC, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art homomorphic evaluations of other PRFs, including some specifically designed for amenability to homomorphic evaluation.

  14. High-Precision Privacy-Preserving Real-Valued Function Evaluation 2018 FinancialCryptography MPC eprint.iacr.org
    Christina Boura and Ilaria Chillotti and Nicolas Gama and Dimitar Jetchev and Stanislav Peceny and Alexander Petric

    We propose a novel multi-party computation protocol for evaluating continuous real-valued functions with high numerical precision. Our method is based on approximations with Fourier series and uses at most two rounds of communication during the online phase. For the offline phase, we propose a trusted-dealer and honest-but-curious aided solution, respectively. We apply our algorithm to train a logistic regression classifier via a variant of Newton’s method (known as IRLS) to compute unbalanced classification problems that detect rare events and cannot be solved using previously proposed privacy-preserving optimization algorithms (e.g., based on piecewise-linear approximations of the sigmoid function). Our protocol is efficient as it can be implemented using standard quadruple-precision floating point arithmetic. We report multiple experiments and provide a demo application that implements our algorithm for training a logistic regression model.

  15. Efficient Pseudorandom Correlation Generators: Silent OT Extension and More 2019 Crypto OT eprint.iacr.org
    Elette Boyle and Geoffroy Couteau and Niv Gilboa and Yuval Ishai and Lisa Kohl and Peter Scholl

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) often relies on sources of correlated randomness for better efficiency and simplicity. This is particularly useful for MPC with no honest majority, where input-independent correlated randomness enables a lightweight “non-cryptographic” online phase once the inputs are known. However, since the amount of correlated randomness typically scales with the circuit size of the function being computed, securely generating correlated randomness forms an efficiency bottleneck, involving a large amount of communication and storage. A natural tool for addressing the above limitations is a pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG). A PCG allows two or more parties to securely generate long sources of useful correlated randomness via a local expansion of correlated short seeds and no interaction. PCGs enable MPC with silent preprocessing, where a small amount of interaction used for securely sampling the seeds is followed by silent local generation of correlated pseudorandomness. A concretely efficient PCG for Vector-OLE correlations was recently obtained by Boyle et al. (CCS 2018) based on variants of the learning parity with noise (LPN) assumption over large fields. In this work, we initiate a systematic study of PCGs and present concretely efficient constructions for several types of useful MPC correlations. We obtain the following main contributions:


    – PCG foundations. We give a general security definition for PCGs. Our definition suffices for any MPC protocol satisfying a stronger security requirement that is met by existing protocols. We prove that a stronger security requirement is indeed necessary, and justify our PCG definition by ruling out a stronger and more natural definition.


    – Silent OT extension. We present the first concretely efficient PCG for oblivious transfer correlations. Its security is based on a variant of the binary LPN assumption and any correlation-robust hash function. We expect it to provide a faster alternative to the IKNP OT extension protocol (Crypto ’03) when communication is the bottleneck. We present several applications, including protocols for non-interactive zero-knowledge with bounded-reusable preprocessing from binary LPN, and concretely efficient related-key oblivious pseudorandom functions.


    – PCGs for simple 2-party correlations. We obtain PCGs for several other types of useful 2-party correlations, including (authenticated) one-time truth-tables and Beaver triples. While the latter PCGs are slower than our PCG for OT, they are still practically feasible. These PCGs are based on a host of assumptions and techniques, including specialized homomorphic secret sharing schemes and pseudorandom generators tailored to their structure.


    – Multiparty correlations. We obtain PCGs for multiparty correlations that can be used to make the circuit-dependent communication of MPC protocols scale linearly (instead of quadratically) with the number of parties.

  16. Private Stateful Information Retrieval 2018 CCS PIR eprint.iacr.org
    Sarvar Patel, Giuseppe Persiano, and Kevin Yeo

    Private information retrieval (PIR) is a fundamental tool for preserving query privacy when accessing outsourced data. All previous PIR constructions have significant costs preventing widespread use. In this work, we present private stateful information retrieval (PSIR), an extension of PIR, allowing clients to be stateful and maintain information between multiple queries. Our design of the PSIR primitive maintains three important properties of PIR: multiple clients may simultaneously query without complex concurrency primitives, query privacy should be maintained if the server colludes with other clients, and new clients should be able to enroll into the system by exclusively interacting with the server.


    We present a PSIR framework that reduces an online query to performing one single-server PIR on a sub-linear number of database records. All other operations beyond the single-server PIR consist of cryptographic hashes or plaintext operations. In practice, the dominating costs of resources occur due to the public-key operations involved with PIR. By reducing the input database to PIR, we are able to limit expensive computation and avoid transmitting large ciphertexts. We show that various instantiations of PSIR reduce server CPU by up to 10x and online network costs by up to 10x over the previous best PIR construction.

  17. Proof-of-Censorship: Enabling centralized censorship-resistant content providers 2018 Censorship FinancialCryptography Privacy fc18.ifca.ai
    Ian Martiny, Ian Miers, and Eric Wustrow

    Content providers often face legal or economic pressures to censor or remove objectionable or infringing content they host. While decentralized providers can enable censorship-resistant storage, centralized content providers remain popular for performance and usability reasons. But centralized content providers can always choose not to respond to requests for a specific file, making it difficult to prevent censorship. If it is not possible to prevent, is it possible to detect and punish censorship on a centralized service?


    A natural approach is to periodically audit the service provider by downloading the file. However, failure to download a file is not a proof of censorship. First, the provider could claim benign failure. Second, the proof is non-transferable: verifying censorship requires third parties to individually request the censored file. Moreover, a content provider may only selectively deny access to particular users or only for a short time frame. As such, checking by downloading does not work even for third parties who are online and willing to make queries.


    In this paper, we introduce proof of censorship, whereby a content provider cannot delete or otherwise selectively remove content from their service without creating transferable cryptographic proof of their misdeed. Even if the provider restores the file at a later date, the proof remains valid, allowing the reputation of a content provider’s commitment to censorship resistance to be based on the existence (or absence) of such proofs.

  18. TACHYON: Fast Signatures from Compact Knapsack 2018 CCS PQC Signatures eprint.iacr.org
    Rouzbeh Behnia, Muslum Ozgur Ozmen, Attila A. Yavuz, and Mike Rosulek

    We introduce a simple, yet efficient digital signature scheme which offers post-quantum security promise. Our scheme, named TACHYON, is based on a novel approach for extending one-time hash-based signatures to (polynomially bounded) many-time signatures, using the additively homomorphic properties of generalized compact knapsack functions. Our design permits TACHYON to achieve several key properties. First, its signing and verification algorithms are the fastest among its current counterparts with a higher level of security. This allows TACHYON to achieve the lowest end-to-end delay among its counterparts, while also making it suitable for resource-limited signers. Second, its private keys can be as small as κ bits, where κ is the desired security level. Third, unlike most of its lattice-based counterparts, TACHYON does not require any Gaussian sampling during signing, and therefore, is free from side-channel attacks targeting this process. We also explore various speed and storage trade-offs for TACHYON, thanks to its highly tunable parameters. Some of these trade-offs can speed up TACHYON signing in exchange for larger keys, thereby permitting TACHYON to further improve its end-to-end delay.

  19. BEAT: Asynchronous BFT Made Practical 2018 CCS Consensus csee.umbc.edu
    Sisi Duan, Michael K. Reiter, and Haibin Zhang

    We present BEAT, a set of practical Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) protocols for completely asynchronous environments. BEAT is flexible, versatile, and extensible, consisting of five asynchronous BFT protocols that are designed to meet different goals (e.g., different performance metrics, different application scenarios). Due to modularity in its design, features of these protocols can be mixed to achieve even more meaningful trade-offs between functionality and performance for various applications. Through a 92-instance, five-continent deployment of BEAT on Amazon EC2, we show that BEAT is efficient: roughly, all our BEAT instances significantly outperform, in terms of both latency and throughput, HoneyBadgerBFT, the most efficient asynchronous BFT known.

  20. "Major key alert!" Anomalous keys in Tor relays 2018 FinancialCryptography PKI Tor arxiv.org
    George Kadianakis, Claudia V. Roberts, Laura M. Roberts, and Philipp Winter

    In its more than ten years of existence, the Tor network has seen hundreds of thousands of relays come and go. Each relay maintains several RSA keys, amounting to millions of keys, all archived by The Tor Project. In this paper, we analyze 3.7 million RSA public keys of Tor relays. We (i) check if any relays share prime factors or moduli, (ii) identify relays that use non-standard exponents, (iii) characterize malicious relays that we discovered in the first two steps, and (iv) develop a tool that can determine what onion services fell prey to said malicious relays. Our experiments revealed that ten relays shared moduli and 3,557 relays – almost all part of a research project – shared prime factors, allowing adversaries to reconstruct private keys. We further discovered 122 relays that used non-standard RSA exponents, presumably in an attempt to attack onion services. By simulating how onion services are positioned in Tor’s distributed hash table, we identified four onion services that were targeted by these malicious relays. Our work provides both The Tor Project and onion service operators with tools to identify misconfigured and malicious Tor relays to stop attacks before they pose a threat to Tor users.

  21. SpOT-Light: Lightweight Private Set Intersection from Sparse OT Extension 2019 Crypto PSI eprint.iacr.org
    Benny Pinkas and Mike Rosulek and Ni Trieu and Avishay Yanai

    We describe a novel approach for two-party private set intersection (PSI) with semi-honest security. Compared to existing PSI protocols, ours has a more favorable balance between communication and computation. Specifically, our protocol has the lowest monetary cost of any known PSI protocol, when run over the Internet using cloud-based computing services (taking into account current rates for CPU + data). On slow networks (e.g., 10Mbps) our protocol is actually the fastest.


    Our novel underlying technique is a variant of oblivious transfer (OT) extension that we call sparse OT extension. Conceptually it can be thought of as a communication-efficient multipoint oblivious PRF evaluation. Our sparse OT technique relies heavily on manipulating high-degree polynomials over large finite fields (i.e. elements whose representation requires hundreds of bits). We introduce extensive algorithmic and engineering improvements for interpolation and multi-point evaluation of such polynomials, which we believe will be of independent interest.


    Finally, we present an extensive empirical comparison of state-of-the- art PSI protocols in several application scenarios and along several dimensions of measurement: running time, communication, peak memory consumption, and — arguably the most relevant metric for practice — monetary cost

  22. Secure Search via Multi-Ring Fully Homomorphic Encryption 2018 CCS EncryptedDatabases FHE SearchableEncryption eprint.iacr.org
    Adi Akavia, Dan Feldman, and Hayim Shaul

    Secure search is the problem of securely retrieving from a database table (or any unsorted array) the records matching specified attributes, as in SQL ``SELECT…WHERE…’’ queries, but where the database and the query are encrypted. Secure search has been the leading example for practical applications of Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) since Gentry’s seminal work in 2009, attaining the desired properties of a single-round low-communication protocol with semantic security for database and query (even during search). Nevertheless, the wide belief was that the high computational overhead of current FHE candidates is too prohibitive in practice for secure search solutions (except for the restricted case of searching for a uniquely identified record as in SQL UNIQUE constrain and Private Information Retrieval). This is due to the high degree in existing solutions that is proportional at least to the number of database records m.


    We present the first algorithm for secure search that is realized by a polynomial of logarithmic degree (log m)^c for a small constant c>0. We implemented our algorithm in an open source library based on HElib, and ran experiments on Amazon’s EC2 cloud with up to 100 processors. Our experiments show that we can securely search to retrieve database records in a rate of searching in millions of database records in less than an hour on a single machine.


    We achieve our result by: (1) Designing a novel sketch that returns the first strictly-positive entry in a (not necessarily sparse) array of non-negative real numbers; this sketch may be of independent interest. (2) Suggesting a multi-ring evaluation of FHE – instead of a single ring as in prior works – and leveraging this to achieve an exponential reduction in the degree.

  23. Release the Kraken: New KRACKs in the 802.11 Standard 2018 Attacks CCS CryptoStandards papers.mathyvanhoef.com
    Mathy Vanhoef and Frank Piessens

    We improve key reinstallation attacks (KRACKs) against 802.11 by generalizing known attacks, systematically analyzing all handshakes, bypassing 802.11’s official countermeasure, auditing (flawed) patches, and enhancing attacks using implementation-specific bugs. Last year it was shown that several handshakes in the 802.11 standard were vulnerable to key reinstallation attacks. These attacks manipulate handshake messages to reinstall an already-in-use key, leading to both nonce reuse and replay attacks. We extend this work in several directions. First, we generalize attacks against the 4-way handshake so they no longer rely on hard-to-win race conditions, and we employ a more practical method to obtain the required man-in-the-middle (MitM) position. Second, we systematically investigate the 802.11 standard for key reinstallation vulnerabilities, and show that the Fast Initial Link Setup (FILS) and Tunneled direct-link setup PeerKey (TPK) handshakes are also vulnerable to key reinstallations. These handshakes increase roaming speed, and enable direct connectivity between clients, respectively. Third, we abuse Wireless Network Management (WNM) power-save features to trigger reinstallations of the group key. Moreover, we bypass (and improve) the official countermeasure of 802.11. In particular, group key reinstallations were still possible by combining EAPOL-Key and WNM-Sleep frames. We also found implementation-specific flaws that facilitate key reinstallations. For example, some devices reuse the ANonce and SNonce in the 4-way handshake, accept replayed message 4’s, or improperly install the group key. We conclude that preventing key reinstallations is harder than expected, and believe that (formally) modeling 802.11 would help to better secure both implementations and the standard itself.

  24. Asymmetric Message Franking: Content Moderation for Metadata-Private End-to-End Encryption 2019 Crypto SecureMessaging eprint.iacr.org
    Nirvan Tyagi and Paul Grubbs and Julia Len and Ian Miers and Thomas Ristenpart

    Content moderation is crucial for stopping abuse and harassment via messaging on online platforms. Existing moderation mechanisms, such as message franking, require platform providers to see user identifiers on encrypted traffic. These mechanisms cannot be used in messaging systems in which users can hide their identities, such as Signal. The key technical challenge preventing moderation is in simultaneously achieving cryptographic accountability while preserving deniability. In this work, we resolve this tension with a new cryptographic primitive: asymmetric message franking schemes (AMFs). We define strong security notions for AMFs, including the first formal treatment of deniability in moderation settings. We then construct, analyze, and implement an AMF scheme that is fast enough for deployment. We detail how to use AMFs to build content moderation for metadata-private messaging.

  25. Improved Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge with Applications to Post-Quantum Signatures 2018 CCS NIZK eprint.iacr.org
    Jonathan Katz, Vladimir Kolesnikov, and Xiao Wang

    Recent work, including ZKBoo, ZKB++, and Ligero, has developed efficient non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge (NIZKPoKs) for arbitrary Boolean circuits based on symmetric- key primitives alone using the “MPC-in-the-head” paradigm of Ishai et al. We show how to instantiate this paradigm with MPC protocols in the preprocessing model; once optimized, this results in an NIZKPoK with shorter proofs (and comparable computation) as in prior work for circuits containing roughly 300–100,000 AND gates. In contrast to prior work, our NIZKPoK also supports witness-independent preprocessing, which allows the prover to move most of its work to an offline phase before the witness is known.


    We use our NIZKPoK to construct a signature scheme based only on symmetric-key primitives (and hence with “post-quantum” security). The resulting scheme has shorter signatures than the scheme built using ZKB++ (with comparable signing/verification time), and is even competitive with hash-based signature schemes.


    To further highlight the flexibility and power of our NIZKPoK, we also use it to build efficient ring and group signatures based on symmetric-key primitives alone. To our knowledge, the resulting schemes are the most efficient constructions of these primitives that offer post-quantum security.